DepEd Glossary of Terms

Department of Education (DepEd) Glossary of Terms version 2.0.2 for the TeacherPH National Qualifying Examination for School Heads (NQESH) Online Review.

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Latest update: November 11, 2021, at 02:16 pm

DepEd Glossary of Terms
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21st-Century Skills
These are the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and competencies that learners need to develop so that they can prepare for and succeed in work and life in the 21st century.
A
ABM Strand
is for those who plan to take up business-related courses in higher education or engage in business, entrepreneurship, and other business-related careers. The STEM Strand is for SHS students who are inclined toward or have the aptitude for Math or Science or Engineering studies. The HUMSS Strand is for students who intend to pursue studies in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences at the tertiary level. The GA Strand will be offered with subjects selected from the different academic strands. It is ideal for SHS students who have not yet decided on a particular specialization.
ALIVE Coordinator
refers to Education Program Supervisors, School Heads and Teachers who are designated as coordinators at regional, division and school levels to oversee and supervise MEP implementation. They are sometimes referred to as Regional ALIVE Coordinators (RACs), and Division ALIVE Coordinators (DACs) and School ALIVE Coordinators (SACs).
ALIVE Coordinators
These are Education Program Supervisors, School Heads and Teachers w’ho are designated as coordinators at the regional, division and school levels, respectively to oversee MEP implementation.
ALS 2.0
refers to the enhanced ALS program of the DepEd anchored on the ALS K to 12 BEC.
ALS Community Learning Center (CLC)
refers to either a school-based or a community-based physical space to house learning resources and facilities of the learning program for out-of-school children in special cases and adults. It is a venue for face-to-face learning activities and other learning opportunities for the development and improvement of the learner’s quality of life.
ALS Enrollment Focal Person (AEFP)
personnel in charge of receiving the ALS enrollment form and respond to queries related to ALS.
ALS Five-Year Strategic Planning
refers to the five-year (2019-2024) strategic plan/roadmap of the ALS Program to ensure that the systems improvements of the ALS K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (known as the ALS 2.0) are aligned with the strategic directions of the Department of Education to (i) Expand Access to Basic Education, (ii) Improve Quality and Relevance, and (iii) Modernize Education Management and Governance.
ALS Five-Year Strategic Roadmap
refers to the five-year (2019-2024) strategic plan/roadmap of the ALS Program to ensure that the systems improvements of the ALS K to 12 BEC (known as the ALS 2.0) are aligned with the strategic directions of DepEd to (i) Expand Access to Basic Education, (ii) Improve Quality and Relevance, and (iii) Modernize Education Management and Governance.
ALS Form 2 (Enrollment Form)
a basic information sheet of individuals who signified interest to enroll in ALS Program.
ALS Form 2 (Enrollment Form)
a basic information sheet of individuals who signified interest to enroll in ALS Program.
ALS Learners
refer to out-of-school children in special cases, out-of-school youth, and out-of-school adults which include, among others, indigenous peoples, learners with disabilities, teenage mothers or female childbearing youth, socioeconomically disadvantaged learners, children in conflict with the law, persons deprived of liberty, rebel returnees, learners in emergency situations, and other marginalized sectors who have not completed basic education and are enrolled in the ALS Program.
ALS Mobile Teacher
refers to a specialized public school teacher conducting learning sessions using the alternative learning delivery mode whose duties require movement from one station to another in depressed, disadvantaged, and underserved communities.
ALS Partner
refers to an individual or group, organization and agency (e.g. LGUs, NGOs, private institutions/companies, religious groups, etc.) that implements ALS programs in different areas using their own resources and/or that provides technical assistance or other resources in support of ALS programs at any level.
ALS Task Force (ALS TF)
created through DepEd Order No. 03, s. 2019 to serve as the focal office in the DepEd Central Office for the coordination and integration of a range of activities under the ALS Five-Year Strategic Roadmap towards the full development and operationalization of the ALS 2.0 program.
ALS Teachers
refer to ALS Mobile Teacher and Full-Time District ALS Coordinator (DALSC) collectively.
ALS Teachers
refer to DepEd employed teachers who implement the ALS programs.
Abduction of Children
This refers to the unlawful seizure, apprehension, taking in custody, detention or capture of one or more children either temporarily or permanently by force, threat of force or coercion, or deception for the purpose of any form of exploitation of such children in the situation of armed conflict. Abduction includes kidnapping, hostage-taking, illegal detention, of any child in the context of armed conflict.
Abot-Alam Enlisted Learners
are individuals 15 to 30 years old who are enrolled in any of the programs which are provided by DepEd or by any of the participating agencies or organizations under the Abot-Alam Program.
Absolute smoking ban
refers to the absolute ban in all schools in accordance with the 100% Smoke-Free Policy under CSC Memo 17 and Section 5 of RA 9211: “Smoking shall be absolutely prohibited. …in centers ofyouth activity such as playschools, preparatory schools, elementary schools, high schools, colleges and universities, youth hostels, and recreational facilities for persons under 18 years old.”
Academic Excellence Award
is a grade-level award that is given to learners from grades 6, 10 and 12 who have attained a general average of at least 90 and a passing final grade in all learning areas (DO No. 36, s. 2016). This award, which covers the following categories: With Highest Honors (May Pinakamataas na Karangalan), With High Honors (May Mataas na Karangalan), and With Honors (May Karangalan), is the only award that shall be given this SY 2020-2021.
Academic School Records (ASR)
refers to different education-related documents attesting to the level of academic completion or accomplishment of a learner in the formal system or Alternative Learning System (ALS) that an applicant can request for a Certification, Authentication and Verification (CAV) as required for authentication by the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA).

It shall include any, or all of, the following:

i. Elementary / Secondary Diploma
ii. Form 137
iii. Form 138
iv. Report of Rating in the Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) Test of the Alternative Learning System (ALS) or Philippine Educational Placement Test (PEPT)
Academic Track
is designed for SHS learners who intend to pursue higher education or careers along four specific strands: 1) Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) Strand; 2) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Strand; 3) Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Strand; and 4) General Academic (GA) Strand.
Accelerated
Learner was assessed and qualified for the higher grade level for the next school year, and is no longer attending classes after the current school year.
Accelerated Teacher Education Program (ATEP)
is a customized course approved by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to be delivered by HEI partners. Through this program, the Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) teachers deployed in public schools may earn a teacher degree and take the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
is a statistical measurement that sets the percentage of the maximum acceptable number of defective goods in a given sample size. In setting the AQL, the implementing unit (IU) or the end-user (EU) shall consider the nature, complexity and volume of the goods to be inspected. In any case, the AQL shall not be lower than 5% and not higher than 10%. Both minor and major defects shall be taken into account in applying the AQL.

To illustrate, a project lot with a total quantity of 1,500 items and with a sample size of 10% will have 150 samples drawn, either randomly or by interval. If the Sampling Plan sets the AQL at 5%, the acceptable number of defective items in the 150 samples is 7.5 or 8. This means that no more than 8 units from the 150 samples should fail in the inspection; otherwise, the whole lot is rejected. However, the Inspectorate Team may proceed to conduct inspection by item, in which case only the defective items will be rejected.
Access restrictions
refers to the prohibitions to sell or distribute tobacco products to a minor; to buy tobacco products from a minor;for a minor to sell, buy or smoke tobacco products (RA 9211, Section 9);for anyone to sell or distribute tobacco products within 100 meters from any point of the perimeter of a school, public playground or other facility frequented particularly by minors ” (RA 9211, Section 10). Access restrictions shall also refer to related policies such as those provided for in local ordinances and the FCTC, including the ban on cigarettes sold individually or in small packets which increase the affordability of tobacco products (FCTC Article 16.3).
Accessible or accessibility
refers to appropriate measures to ensure that persons with disabilities have access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications, including information and communications technologies and systems, and to other facilities and services open or provided to the public, both in urban and in rural areas (UNCRDP, Article 9, 2006).
Accommodations
are the appropriate actions made regarding the learning environment, learning materials and other resources, curriculum format, equipment, and devices to allow learners with disabilities be able to learn and develop understanding of the content, and competencies being taught or be able to complete the task/activities given to them by their teachers.
Accountability
refers to the obligation of DepEd officials and employees to accept responsibility for the selection of employees in adherence to the basic principles stated herein, to explain, clarify, and justify human resource (HR) actions; disclose the results in a transparent manner; and be answerable to consequences.
Accountable Office
refers to the office in any governance level in-charge of the achievement of a specific PBB target or implementation of and compliance with a specific PBB requirement.
Accounting Policies
specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.
Accounts Payable (AP)
refers to a valid and legal obligation of NCAs/OUs, for which, goods/services/projects have been delivered/rendered/completed and accepted, regardless of the year when these obligations were incurred
Accreditation and Equivalency Assessments and Certification (A&E Assessments and Certifications)
refer to processes in ALS that comprise of exams and other assessments deemed appropriate and anchored on the competencies of the ALS K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC).
Accredited or Recognized Employee Union
an employees’ union accredited pursuant to Executive Order No. 180 and its implementing rules and regulations.
Accrual basis
basis of accounting under which transactions and other events are recognized when they occur (and not only when cash or its equivalent is received or paid)

transactions and events are recognized in the accounting records and recognized in the financial statements of the periods to which they relate

elements recognized under accrual accounting are assets, liabilities, net assets/equity, revenue, and expenses
Accrued Interest
refers to the interest earned by the lending institution but not yet paid by the borrower.
Action Research
is a process of systematic, reflective inquiry to improve educational practices or resolve problems in any operating unit (i.e. school, classroom, office)
Activity
is a work process that contributes to the fulfillment of a program, sub-program or project (DBM National Budget Circular No. 559, dated 26 June 2015). Activities are output-driven undertakings with specific calendar schedule and resource assignment. The objectives of an activity typically have corresponding tangible and quantifiable outputs. An activity must be anchored on a program / project and consistent with DepEd’s vision and mission. Activities are significantly limited in scope and shorter in lifespan than either programs or projects. Activities may be initiated by the CO, ROs, SDOs, schools or by external partners. Activities are generally evaluated against the expected / identified outputs and immediately after they have ended.
Activity Request (AR)
is a plan implementation document secured prior to the conduct of an activity which is included in the approved WFP (Original and Adjusted) and within the set threshold.
Adaptation
adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.
Adjusted Work and Financial Plan
is a result of the adjustments made in the WFP as recommended after the conduct of the quarterly PIR.
Administrative Order (AO)
enforceable order issued by a public authority (under the powers conferred to it by one or more statutes) to an individual or an organization to take certain corrective action, or to refrain from an activity
Adolescent Reproductive Health Education (ARH)
a program that aims to strengthen DepEd’s delivery of its mandates under the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (R.A. No. 10354) through a guidance and counseling program by enhancing capacities of licensed guidance counselors or designated homeroom guidance teachers and selected personnel and development of a referral network to service providers on all RPRH concerns.
Adopt-a-School Program (ASP)
shall refer to a program which allows private entities to assist a public school in a particular aspect of its educational program within an agreed period.
Adopt-a-School Program Secretariat
shall refer to the unit under the External Partnerships Service which reviews, facilitates, and endorses the application of the Private Sector partner to the Revenue District Office having jurisdiction over the place of business of the donating partner.
Advancement
any subject area offered during summer class to be taken by a senior high school learner with work immersion in the succeeding semester. The advance subjects are those that are left together with the work immersion. This is to give the learner time to focus on his/her work immersion during the semester.
Advice to Debit Account (ADA)
authorization issued by the NGA/OU appearing in the lower portion of the List of Due and Demandable Accounts PayableAdvice to Debit Account (LDDAP-ADA)

serves as an instruction to the Modified Disbursement System, Government Servicing Banks (MDS-GSBs) to debit a specified amount from its available NCA balance under regular MDS sub-account for payment of creditors/payees through the Expanded Modified Disbursement Payment Scheme (ExMDPS)
Agency Performance Measure Framework (APMF)
linked with the agency’s work and financial plan and Budget Financial Accountability Reports (BFARs)
Agency Performance Review (APR)
the process of determining the level of accomplishment of each agency in terms of physical outputs, income generated, and actual expenditures incurred in the production/delivery of goods and services to the public vis-a-vis the targets/budgets for the same period
Allotment
authorization issued by DBM to NGAs to incur obligations for specified amounts contained in a legislative appropriation in the form of budget release documents. It is also referred to as Obligational Authority.
Allotment Release Program (ARP)
overall ceiling of the total obligational authority which may be issued to the agencies for the year, from all fund sources
Alternative Delivery Modes
are tried and tested alternative modalities of education delivery within the confines of the formal system that allow schools to deliver quality education to marginalized students and those at risk of dropping out in order to help them overcome personal, social, and economic constraints in their schooling.
Alternative Delivery Modes (ADMs)
instructional learning modalities that do not strictly follow the typical set-up for regular classroom instruction, but follow the K to 12 curriculum in content.
Alternative Delivery Modules or Self-Learning Modules (SLMs)
selfcontained, self-instructional, self-paced, and interactive learning resources for public schools intended for learning a specific topic or lesson where the learner interacts actively with the instructional material rather than reading the material passively. SLMs become an ideal learning resource and therefore a priority in remote or distance learning where a teacher is unable to provide the constant instructional supervision and guidance in a classroom setting. SLMs have been used by DepEd for its ADMs during disasters or in situations where learners have difficulty for daily school attendance. COVID-19 has compelled the use of SLMs on a large scale.
Alternative Learning System (ALS)
refers to a parallel learning system that is a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. It encompasses both the non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills.
Alternative Learning System (ALS) Accreditation and Equivalency Test (A&E Tests)
refers to nationally-administered tests that aim to measure the competencies and life skills of those who have not attended or finished formal elementary or secondary education. These assessments allow learners to obtain certification of completion at different exits in Basic Education, which may be used to access further education, job promotion, entry to job training, and employment.
Alternative Learning System Act
refers to Republic Act 11510 – An Act Institutionalizing the Alternative Learning System in Basic Education for Out-of-School Children in Special Cases and Adults and Appropriating Funds Therefor.
Alternative Learning System Act
refers to Republic Act 11510 or An Act Institutionalizing the ALS in Basic Education for Out-of-School Children in Special Cases and Adults and Appropriating Funds Therefor.
Alternative Learning System K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (ALS K to 12 BEC)
refers to the comprehensive curriculum indicating the competency, content, key stages, and standards for the ALS program. The ALS K to 12 BEC is benchmarked on the DepEd K to 12 formal school curriculum and focuses on the 21st Century Skills: information, media and technology skills, learning and innovation skills, communication skills, and life and career skills.
Alternative Work Arrangement
refers to work arrangements identified by the CSC which government agencies such as the DepEd may adopt individually or in combination during the period of State of National Emergency due to COVID-19 Pandemic. These include Work-From-Home, Skeleton Workforce, Four-day (compressed) Workweek, Staggered Working Hours, or Other Alternative Working Arrangements appropriate/applicable to the agency subject to prevailing community quarantine and the nature of work/job performed by the employees.
Ancestral Domain (AD)
refers to “all areas generally belonging to ICCs/IPs comprising lands, inland waters, coastal areas, and natural resources therein, held under a claim of ownership, occupied or possessed by ICCs/IPs, themselves or through their ancestors, communally or individually since time immemorial, continuously to the present except when interrupted by war, force majeure or displacement by force, deceit, stealth or as a consequence of government projects or any other voluntary dealings entered into by government and private individuals/corporations, and which are necessary to ensure their economic, social and cultural welfare. It shall include ancestral land, forests, pasture, residential, agricultural, and other lands individually owned whether alienable and disposable or otherwise, hunting grounds, burial grounds, worship areas, bodies of water, mineral and other natural resources, and lands which may no longer be exclusively occupied by ICCs/IPs but from which they traditionally had access to for their subsistence and traditional activities, particularly the home ranges of ICCs/IPs who are still nomadic and/or shifting cultivators” (Section 3(a), Republic Act No. 8371 [RA 8371] otherwise known as “The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997”).
Annotations
Self-reflection, explanation, or presentational mark-up attached to/ written on a document, artifact, or Means of Verification (MOV); see reflection notes.
Annual Implementation Plan
refers to is a year-by-year plan that contains the specific activities, output, required resources, schedule, and individual/s who will be accountable for school/Community Learning Centers Priority Improvement Areas (PIAs).
Annual Implementation Plan or School Operating Budget
based on School Improvement Plan (SIP), it identifies the problems and objectives for one school year and the intervention programs that include strategies and learning activities, time frame for implementing the activities, persons responsible, and resources needed which are appropriate to achieve the objectives set

annual budget that contains estimates of the total value of resources (personnel services, miscellaneous and other operating expenses, and capital outlay) required for the performance of the operation
Annual Procurement Plan (AAP)
documents that consolidate the various Project Procurement Management Plans (PPMPs) submitted by the various enduser units of the agency

reflects the entirety of the procurement activities that will be undertaken within the calendar year
Annual Procurement Plan (APP)
is the consolidated Project Procurement Management Plan (PPMP). This document reflects the necessary information on the entire procurement activities that is planned to be undertaken within the calendar year.
Annual Procurement Plan – Common-use Supplies and Equipment (APP-CSE)
is an Annual Procurement Plan which outlines the commonuse supplies and equipment of the operating unit to be procured by the supply unit for the entire fiscal year.
Application for tax incentives or tax exemption
shall refer to the application for tax credit by the Private Sector partner referred to under Section 4 of the Adopt-a-School Act of 1998, which is an application for additional deduction in arriving at the net taxable income.
Application of Education
refers to the contribution/s made by an applicant that have led to positive outcome in their current or previous workplace as a result of their learnings from their education earned.
Application of Learning and Development
refers to the contribution/s made by an applicant that have led to positive outcome in their current or previous workplace as a result of their learnings gained from the human resource development interventions done/attended.
Appropriation
It is the authorization made by a legislative body to allocate funds for purposes specified by the legislative or similar authority. The following are the different types of appropriations:

1. New General Appropriations – are annual authorizations for incurring obligations during a specified budget year, as listed in the GAA.

2. Supplemental Appropriations – are additional appropriations authorized by law to augment the original appropriations which proved to be insufficient for their intended purpose due to economic, political or social conditions supported by a Certification of Availability of Funds (CAF) from the BTr.

3. Continuing Appropriations – are the authorizations to support obligations for a specific purpose or project, such as multi-year projects or activities which require the incurrence of obligations even beyond the budget year.

4. Automatic Appropriations – are the authorizations programmed annually or for some other period prescribed by law, by virtue of outstanding legislation which does not require periodic action by Congress.
Appropriation
refers to an authorization pursuant to laws or other legislative enactment requiring Congressional action, directing the spending of public funds for a specific purpose, up to a specified amount under specified conditions.
Approved Budget
expenditure authority derived from appropriation laws, government ordinances, and other decisions related to the anticipated revenue or receipts for the budgetary period
Approved List of SLRs
is the list of SLRs that underwent and passed the evaluation process of the Bureau of Learning Resources (BLR).
Arabic Emergent Reading (AER)
A training program held after the LEaP training for newly hired asatidz who are under COS to enhance their skills in teaching Arabic Language focusing on reading.
Arabic Emergent Reading (AER)
is a training program for asatidz to enhance their skills in teaching Arabic Language focused on reading. This is usually conducted a day after the LEaP training.
Arabic Emergent Reading and Culture Awareness (AERCA)
A capacity building program consisting of five (5) days for the ALIVE implementers to acquire basic knowledge on Arabic Language and Culture that are essentials for instructional supervision as weil as promotes respect and understanding.
Arabic Emergent Reading and Culture Awareness (AERCA)
is a capacity building program for implementer to acquire basic knowledge on Arabic Language and Culture that are essential for instructional supervision as well as in the promotion of respect and understanding of Muslim culture.
Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE)
A program with the aim of preserving Arabic language and Muslim culture through its inclusion in the regular basic education curriculum, being taught to Muslim learners enrolled in public schools.
Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE)
is a program implemented in public schools which aims to provide additional subjects on Arabic Language and Islamic Values in the regular basic education curriculum.
Armed conflict
refers to armed confrontations occurring between government forces and one or more armed groups, or between such groups arising in the Philippine territory. These shall include activities which may lead to or in preparation of armed confrontation or armed violence that put children’s lives at risk and their lives violated.
Armed group
refers to an armed non-State actor or non-State entity engaged in armed violence against the State or its government forces or against other non-State armed groups, actors or non-State entities.
Artifacts
All documents that provide evidence of quality instruction (e.g. lesson plan, instructional materials, etc.) which may be used as means of verifying attainment of Key Result Areas (KRAs).
Arts and Design Track
is designed for SHS learners who intend to pursue careers in the world of arts. This track covers a wide range of art forms: Theater, Music, Dance, Creative Writing, Visual Arts, and Media Arts. This track has three arts field specializations SHS learners may choose from depending on their inclination and aptitude. These specializations are: apprenticeship, art exhibition/performance, or production.
Asatidz
The plural form of the Arabic word ustadz, a term that refers to male professor/teacher and “ustadzah”, a term that refers to female professor/teacher.
Asatidz
is the plural form of the Arabic word “ustadz”, a term that refers to male teacher and “ustadzah”, a term that refers to female teacher. This is the general Arabic term for teachers historically or traditionally used in most Filipino Muslim communities.
Assessment
refers to the initial, ongoing, and continuous process of gathering information/data to ascertain the learner’s current level of functioning, such as but not limited to cognitive, motor, psychosocial, communication, and adaptive as basis for educational planning.
Assessment
The process of gathering, documenting and organizing in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to determine how much they attain the KRAs. The process of determining the relevance, worth or value of documents and evidences.
Assessment Data
Learner data obtained from diagnostic, formative and/or summative assessment practices
Assessment Phase
Any of the stages in the portfolio assessment process: preassessment, assessment and post-assessment.
Assessment Process
A set of procedures or stages in evaluating a portfolio to determine the merits of its contents.
Assessment Service area
refers to where the gathering of information about the learner using a variety of techniques and strategies that shall be done by trained SPED teachers or psychometrician.
Assets
resources controlled by an entity as a result of past events, and from which future economic benefits or service potential are expected to flow to the entity
Assistive Devices
are external devices that are designed, made, or adapted to assist learners with disabilities to perform a particular task; carry out daily activities; and to participate actively and productively in the community.
Assistive devices and technologies
are resources with the primary’ purpose of maintaining or improving an individual’s functioning and independence to facilitate participation and to enhance overall well-being. These devices can also help prevent impairments and secondary health conditions (WHO, 2017).
Attack on schools
refers to the attacks, occupation, shelling, targeting for propaganda
of schools and their personnel; causing damage to such places, or harm or injury to their personnel; or causing the total or partial physical destruction of such facilities; or disruption of educational activities.
Attacks on Schools and Hospitals
This refer to the occupation without a lawful purpose, shelling, targeting for propaganda in relation to unlawful purposes or purposes contrary to public policy, order, or morals of schools and hospitals; or causing damage to such places, or harm or injury to their personnel; or causing the total or partial physical destruction of such facilities; or disruption of education activities and health services. It also refers to attacks of such places which have been temporarily abandoned by the community as a result of armed conflict.
Audit
A systematic, independent, and documented process for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled
Audit Summary Report
A report prepared by the Internal Quality Audit (IQA) team which contains the outcome of an audit.
Authenticate (RPMS Portfolio)
Rater and Ratee affix their signatures to verify, prove or confirm that the contents/documents of an RPMS Portfolio are valid and genuine copies of the original.
Authority to Conduct (ATC)
is a plan implementation document that is secured prior to the conduct of an activity which is not included in the approved WFP, or for conduct of any activity that has major deviations from the approved plan such as increase in the budget requirement for an activity exceeding a given threshold, and change in the nature or scope of an activity.
Authorization (NEAP)
is the formal NEAP evaluation of non-DepEd entities applying to become a provider of recognized professional development programs and courses for teachers and school leaders (DO No. 001, s. 2020).
Authorized Government Depository Banks (AGDBs)
such as Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP), Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), and Philippine Veterans Bank (PVB)
Authorized Learning Service Providers (LSP)
are non-DepEd providers that have been awarded formal, fixed-term Authorization by NEAP to provide professional development to teachers and school leaders within DepEd (DO No. 001, s. 2020).
Automatic Appropriations
authorizations programmed annually or for some other period prescribed by law, by virtue of outstanding legislation which does not require periodic action by Congress
Automatic Payroll Deduction System (APDS)
refers to a mechanism of collecting payments, through salaiy deduction, for mandatory and non-mandatoiy financial obligations of DepEd employees, and remittance thereof to government and accredited private entities.
Automatic Position Upgrading
the change in position title and the salary adjustment given to incumbents of Teacher I positions who have rendered twenty (20) or more years of satisfactory teaching service.
Awards Committee
a committee organized by the school head to establish processes of, standards, and timelines in determining qualifiers for awards as well as to deliberate on the qualifications of candidates for awards and recognition.
B
BE-LCP
The roadmap/framework developed by the Department of Education using participatory approach to provide guidance to the department on how to deliver education in this time of crisis while ensuring the health, safety, and welfare of all learners, teachers , and personnel of DepEd.
BP 201
refers to a budget preparation form prescribed by DBM in the preparation of annual budget (e.g. FY 2020 Actual, FY 2021 Current and FY 2022 Total Proposed Program). The form reflects the summary of obligations and the proposed programs/projects in a comparative matrix which includes pro grams/projects/activities (P/P/As) or components thereof that address the specific commitment of the department, including appropriate justification as may be necessary.
Background Investigation
refers to the verification of an applicant’s credentials, behavior, and previous performance, if any, by validating the information and records declared by the applicant in their Personal Data Sheet (PDS) and/or contacting their identified reference person/s in their school/s attended, and current or previous workplace.
Background Investigation
refers to the verification of an applicant’s credentials, behaviour, and previous performance, if any, by validating the information and records declared by the applicant in their Personal Data Sheet (PDS) and/or contacting their identified reference person/s in their school/s attended, and current or previous workplace.
Balik-Aral Learner
a learner who went back to school and resumed study after year/s of dropping out or discontinuing study.
Balik-Aral Learner
a learner who went back to school and resumed study after year/s of dropping out or discontinuing study.
Balik-Aral learner
a learner who went back to school and resume study after year/years of dropping out or discontinuing study.
Ban on Sponsorships
refers to the prohibition against donations/ contributions of any kind from the tobacco industry as this is a form of advertising, enhances the image of the tobacco company, and provides access to influence policy makers. RA9211, Sec. 23 bans sponsorship of sports, concert, cultural or art events and artists while the JMC prohibits all forms of contributions or donations to public offices or officials, including those given under the so-called CSR activities of the tobacco industry.
Ban on promotional items for minors
refers to the prohibition against items marketed to or likely used by children that bear a name, logo, indicia, or element of a brand or marketing activity for tobacco products. Such items include but are “not limited to sports equipment, toys, dolls, miniature replicas of racing vehicles, video games, and food…that are directed toward minors” (RA 9211, Section 17). This also refers to the ban on the sale of sweets, snacks, toys or other objects in the form of (or likeness to) tobacco products which appeal to minors (FCTC Art 16c).
Bank Charges
charges imposed by the bank for various services rendered excluding interest charges. Also includes the cost of checkbooks, penalties, and surcharges on overdrafts.
Bank Reconciliation
settlement of differences contained in the bank statement and the cash account in the agency’s/entity’s books of accounts.
Bank Statement
reflects the transactions in the agency’s/entity’s (depositor’s) bank account for a period such as deposits made to the account as well as checks/ADAs drawn on the account, bank charges, returned items, etc.
Basic Education Facilities Fund (BEFF)
lump-sum amount of appropriations that normally covers classroom (construction, repair and rehabilitation), water and sanitation facilities, and furniture requirements of the schools
Basic Education Research Fund (BERF)
is a grant provided by the Department of Education to support education research in aid of evidencebased policy formulation.
Basic Education School Records
refers to any of the documents defined under Section III (a) above evidencing the level of academic completion or accomplishment of a learner which encompasses kindergarten, elementary, and secondary education as well as alternative learning systems for out-of-school- learners and those with special needs.
Basic Education-Learning Continuity Plan
refers to the roadmap/ framework developed by the Department of Education using participatory approach to provide guidance to the Department on how to deliver education in this time of crisis, while ensuring the health, safety, and welfare of all learners, teachers, and personnel of DepEd. The key components of the plan include: (i) streamlining the K to 12 curriculum to the Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELCs); (ii) multiple learning modalities, with blended learning and distance learning as major options; (iii) preparing teachers and school leaders for multiple learning delivery modalities; (iv) minimum health standards in schools and workplaces; (v) Balik Eskwela, Oplan Balik Eskwela, and partnerships; (vi) finance, procurement and delivery, and monitoring and evaluation adjustments.
Basic Education-Learning Continuity Plan (BE-LCP)
The roadmap/ framework developed by DepEd using participatory approach to provide guidance to the department on how to deliver education in this time of crisis while ensuring the health, safety and welfare of all learners, teachers, and personnel.
Basic Inputs (BI)
refers to the crucial resources allocated to schools and community learning centers needed for the delivery of basic education. These include, but are not limited to, facilities, teaching and non-teaching personnel, computers and electronic classroom packages, textbooks and other instructional materials, learning tools and equipment (Science & Math Equipment and Technical, Vocational and Livelihood Equipment) and other basic inputs.
Basic Literacy Level
refers to the first ALS key stage for learners who cannot read or write.
Basic Literacy Program (BLP)
is a community-based program for nonliterate out-of-school children, youth, and adults to acquire basic reading, writing and numeracy skills or the ability to read with comprehension, write simple messages and solve simple numeracy problems.
Bayanihan To Heal As One Act (Republic Act No. 11469)
refers to the law enacted by Congress in March 2020 granting the President of the Philippines temporary authority to carry out tasks necessary to implement measures to mitigate, if not contain the transmission of COVID-19, and undertake means to prevent the overburdening of the healthcare system, among others.
Behavioral Therapy Service Area
refers to where the learners with disabilities are being helped by Behavioral Therapist to modify the impact of the issues on their behavior and to understand the negative thoughts, difficulties, and debilitating behaviors they want to change.
Behavioural Events Interview
refers to the conduct of direct inquiry with the applicants, focusing on their display of desired behaviour/s when subjected to specific situations or conditions in their previous and/or current workplace. It seeks to determine how past behaviour predicts future performance. It shall be used to validate if key behaviours linked to the required competencies have been exhibited by the applicants.
Beneficiary Schools
The identified sites where school clinics shall be established; the clinics will serve as hubs for providing and strengthening health and nutrition education as well as targeted medical, dental, and nursing service delivery.
Blended Learning
This refers to a learning delivery that combines face-to-face with any or a mix of online distance learning, modular distance learning, and TV/Radio-based Instruction. Blended learning will enable the schools to limit face-to-face learning, ensure social distancing, and decrease the volume of people outside the home at any given time.
Bona Fide Resident
refers to an applicant who has been residing for at least six (6) months at the barangay, municipality, city, or province, in that order, where the vacancy exists, as evidenced by the applicant’s PDS and Voter’s Identification ID or any proof of residency.
Branch or extension campus of learning institutions (Branch Campus)
refers to a learning facility operating at a site other than the mother campus, providing some or the same services as the mother campus.
Bridging Service Area
refers to where learners with disabilities are being prepared by SPED teachers for which they are provided with direct instruction in the core curriculum to a supported full-inclusion program.
Brigada Eskwela Program
shall refer to the schools’ maintenance week program that engages the private sector, LGUs, NGOs, and communities to provide assistance and to generate resources for public schools before the school year starts.
Budget Accountability
takes the form of management’s review of actual performance or work accomplishment in relation to the work targets of the agency vis-a-vis the financial resources made available.

also include detailed examinations of each agency’s book of accounts undertaken by the Commission on Audit (COA) to ensure that all expenses have been disbursed in accordance with accounting regulations and the purpose(s) for which the funds have been authorized.
Budget Execution Documents (BEDs)
annual documents required at the onset of the budget execution phase, which contain the agencies’ targets and plans for the current year.
Budget Financial Accountability Reports (BFAR)
reports on the agencies’ actual financial and physical accomplishments/performance for a given period

reportorial requirements of the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) from funded agencies which include the following:

– Statement of Appropriations, Allotments, Obligations, Disbursements, and Balances

– Detailed Statement of Current Year’s Obligations, Disbursements, and Unpaid Obligations

– Summary of Prior Year’s Obligations, Disbursements, and Unpaid Prior Year’s Obligations

– Summary Report of Disbursements
Budget Preparation (forms)
Department of Budget and Management’s (DBM) required forms for preparing budget proposal
Budget of Expenditures and Sources of Financing (BESF)
detailed and graphical presentation of the expenditure program and the sources to finance the expenditures

document which reflects the annual program of estimated expenditures presented by the executive branch to the legislature for spending authority, accompanied by an estimate of expected sources of financing
Budget of Work (BOW)
is a resource material for teaching multigrade classes that contains K to 12 basic education curriculum competencies, skills, and objectives; topics for specific skills and competencies; and teaching strategies, activities, and time allotment arranged into columns for easy reference and notation. It will serve as teacher’s reference in preparing daily and/or weekly lesson plans.
Buildable Space
refers to vacant land in an existing school campus deemed suitable for the construction of classroom/s of 7m x 9m each in dimension as stipulated in the DepED Educational Facilities Manual.
C
COVID-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 which is caused by the virus known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Canceled Check/ADA
checks/ADAs issued and chargeable to the agency bank account but was later voided due to expiration of validity, and other valid reasons
Capability-Building Activities
refer to activities by which DepEd teaching and non-teaching personnel as well as other education stakeholders such as parents, guardians, caregivers and learning support aides obtain, retain, and continuously improve their knowledge, skills, and attitudes on child rights, including child protection and positive discipline in education. These may include, but are not limited to, the conduct of online trainings through webinars and online meetings.
Capability-Building Activities
refer to activities by which DepEd teaching and non-teaching personnel obtain, retain, and continuously improve their knowledge, skills, and competencies on child rights in basic education. These may include, but are not limited to, the conduct of online trainings through webinars and online meetings.
Capacity Building
includes training-workshop (online or blended or face to face (if allowed by IATF and LGUs) for ALS implementers on the implementation of the ALS K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum.
Capacity Building-Activities
refer to activities by which DepEd teaching and non-teaching personnel obtain, retain, and continuously improve their knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to protect learners from all forms of abuse, violence, exploitation, discrimination, bullying, and other forms of abuse.
Capital Outlay (or Capital Expenditures)
appropriations spent for the purchase of goods and services, the benefits of which extend beyond the fiscal year and which add assets to the government.
Capital Outlay or Property, Plant and Equipment
are items that meets the capitalization threshold of PhPl 5,000.00.
Capital Outlays or Capital Expenditures
Refer to an expenditure category/ expense class for the purchase of goods and services, the benefits of which extend beyond the fiscal year and which add to the assets of the Government, including investments in the capital stock of government corporations.
Career Growth
Developmental progression as teachers develop, refine their practice, and respond to the complexities of educational reforms.
Career Service
positions in the civil service characterized by (1) entrance based on merit and fitness to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examination, or based on highly technical qualifications; (2) opportunity for advancement to higher career positions; and (3) security of tenure.
Career Stages
The different phases in one’s teaching career which starts from being a Beginning, to Proficient, to Highly Proficient and to Distinguished teacher.
Caregivers
refer to persons, other than parents, guardians, and learning support aides, who facilitate a child’s education in the context of home-based learning or homeschooling.
Cash
comprises cash on hand and cash in bank (held under current and savings account) and cash treasury accounts
Cash Advance
refers to the amount granted on the explicit authority of the Schools Division Superintendent (SDS) only to duly designated disbursing officers or employees for legally authorized purposes, such as payment of current operating expenditures, including travel expenses, and MOOE of the school or for special purpose/time-bound undertaking of the agency when it is impractical to pay the same by check or through direct crediting to bank accounts.
Cash Advances
Funds granted to officers and employees which may be classified into: (a) regular cash advance – those granted to cashiers, disbursing officers, paymasters and/ or property/ supply officers for salaries and wages, commutable allowances, honoraria and other similar payments and petty cash operating expenses; (b) special cash advances -those granted on the explicit authority of the agency heads to duly designated disbursing officers or employees for other legally authorized purposes.
Cash Advances
advances granted to officers and employees which may be classified into:

– regular cash advances – those granted to cashiers, disbursing officers, paymasters and/or property/supply officers for salaries and wages, commutable allowances, honoraria, and other similar payments, and petty cash operating expenses

– special cash advances – those granted on the explicit authority of the agency heads to duly designated disbursing officers or employees for other legally authorized purposes
Cash Budgeting System
all appropriation authorized in General Appropriations Act, FY 202 1, including budgetary support to GOCCs, shall be available for release and disbursement for the purpose specified, and under the same general and special provisions and applicable thereto until December 31, 2021. After the end of validity period, all unreleased appropriations shall lapse, while unexpended or undisbursed funds shall revert to the unappropriated surplus of the General Fund in accordance with section 28, Chapter 4, Book VI of E.O. No. 292 and shall not thereafter be available for expenditure except for subsequent legislative enactment. Section 62 of Republic Act 11518.
Cash Disbursement Ceiling (CDC)
authority issued by DBM to the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) and Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to utilize their income collected/retained by their Foreign Service Posts (FSPs) to cover their operating requirements, but not to exceed the released allotment to the said post.
Cash Equivalents
short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Cash Flows
inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents.
Cash Release Program (CRP)
overall ceiling of disbursement authorities which may be issued to the agencies for a particular period
Catch-Up Plan
refers to the strategies that the operating units will undertake to keep the implementation of PPAs on track as planned (timeliness and quality) and to ensure that the desired results are achieved.
Catchment Area
refers to the area within a two-kilometer (2-km) radius and one-kilometer (1 km) radius from any existing public school in rural and urban areas, respectively.
Catchment Area
is the area within a one-, two- or three-kilometer radius from any existing public school in urban, rural and remote areas, respectively.
Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim (CADC)
refers to “a certificate declaring and certifying the claim of each indigenous cultural community (ICC) over a corresponding territory earlier identified and delineated as ancestral domain issued by the government in the name of an indigenous community claimant and placed under the custody of its recognized indigenous socio-political leadership or people’s organization” (Section 1, Article IV, Department Administrative Order No. 02, s. 1993, Department of Environment and Natural Resources).
Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT)
refers to a title formally recognizing the rights of possession and ownership of ICCs/IPs over their ancestral domains identified and delineated in accordance with law (Section 3(c), RA 8371).
Certificate of No Claim Against the Warranty
refers to a document which certifies that the goods delivered, inspected and accepted have undergone post-delivery inspection and found free of defects, or that defective items, if any, were duly rectified or replaced; and that all the conditions imposed under the contract have been fully satisfied. The issuance of this certificate shall cause the release of the retention money to the supplier.
Certificate of Travel Completed (CTC)
certificate issued by cash advance initiator to prove that such travel actually happened
Certification
refers to the official and formal process and an act of attesting to any relevant information pertaining to the academic level of accomplishment of a learner based on his/her existing and verifiable school records as certified to by duly authorized and competent authorities. The Certification covers information as disclosed in the said school records and defined appropriately in this Section, as follows:

i. Academic Level Completed
ii. English as Medium of Instruction
iii. English Translation of Diploma
iv. Graduation
Certification of Academic Level Completed
refers to a document issued by duly authorized and competent authorities certifying to a learner’s level of academic completion in the formal education system.
Certification of English Translation of Diploma
refers to a document issued by duly authorized and competent authorities certifying to the translation in the English language of school records in non-English language.
Certification of English as Medium of Instruction
refers to a document issued by duly authorized and competent authorities certifying that the language used in teaching in a learning institution is English.
Certification of Graduation
refers to a document issued by duly authorized and competent authorities certifying, based on incontestable school records, the name of the learner, his / her year of graduation and Learner’s Reference Number (LRN) issued by DepEd; and, in the case of private schools, the learner’s Special Order Number upon graduation from secondary course.
Certification, Authentication, and Verification (CAV)
refers to an official and formal process and acts of checking, reviewing, and certifying to the genuineness and veracity of available academic school records of a learner duly performed by the Department of Education (DepEd) and the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) pursuant to existing arrangements by the said Departments; and shall be issued to the applicant only for any of the following applicable purposes and as required by DFA:

i. Employment abroad
ii. Seaman’s Book I Seafarer’s Registration Certificate
iii. Migration abroad
iv. Student visa
v. Tourist visa
vi. Fiance visa
vii. Descendant’s visa
viii. Reimbursement of educational allowance/tuition fees of children of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW)
ix. Such other purposes as may be required in writing by the DFA
Certifying Officers
refers to those who are authorized by this Order to certify to the Academic School Records of a learner as enumerated in this Section.

They are either appointed or designated by duly-constituted authorities, as follows:

i. Records Custodian / Registrar
ii. School Heads
iii. Division Records Officer
iv. Administrative Officer V for Administrative Section
v. Assistant Schools Division Superintendent
vi. Schools Division Superintendent
vii. Regional Records Officer
viii. Regional Chief Administrative Officer, Administrative Division
ix. Assistant Regional Director
x. Regional Director

For the purpose of issuance of the Certification, Authentication and Verification (CAV) Form, the signature and approval therein shall be by the Regional Director or Assistant Regional Director or Regional Chief Administrative Officer, Administrative Division, in the said signing authority order.
Change in accounting estimate
adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected future benefits and obligations associated with, assets and liabilities.

changes in accounting estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not correction of errors.
Checking Account
is a type of bank account against which checks can be drawn by the account holder/ s. Also referred to as “current account.”
Child Online Protection
is a form of child protection, which responds to, and addresses, the incidence of violence, abuse, exploitation, and bullying against children on the Internet or other electronic platforms.
Child Protection
refers to structures, programs, services and procedures, which are intended to prevent and respond to child abuse, violence, exploitation, discrimination, bullying and other forms of abuse.
Child labor
Employment of children in any work that (a) is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children, and (b) interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school, obliging them to leave school prematurely, or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.
Children
Persons below 18 years old. In line with DO No. 40, s. 2012, the term also refers to those over 18 years old but unable to fully take care of themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation, or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition.
Children involved in armed conflict
refer to children who are either forcibly, compulsorily recruited, or who voluntarily joined a government force or any armed group in any capacity. These children may participate directly in armed hostilities as combatants or fighters; or indirectly through support roles such as scouts, spies, saboteurs, decoys, checkpoint assistants, couriers, messengers, porters, cooks, or as sexual objects.
Civil Society Organizations (CSO)
include Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), people’s organizations, cooperatives, trade unions, professional associations, faith-based organizations, media groups, indigenous peoples movements, foundations, and other citizen groups formed primarily for social and economic development, to monitor government programs and projects, engage in policy discussions, and actively participate in collaborative activities with the government.
Class Adviser
refers to the classroom teacher of the Kindergarten to Grade 3 self-contained classes in charge of the day-to-day instruction and activities of the learners in a particular class or section.
Class Days
consist of days when curricular and co-curricular activities are conducted within or outside school premises, including the home, devoted to the attainment of learning objectives and intended to ensure effective delivery of the curriculum.
Classroom Assessment
is an ongoing process of identifying, gathering, organizing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative information about what learners know and can do.
Classroom Assessment
is an ongoing process of identifying, gathering, organizing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative information about what learners know and can do.
Classroom Awards
are recognition given to learners in each class or section. A simple recognition may be given per quarter, semester, or at the end of the school year. Awardees are given merit by the adviser and/or other subject teachers in recognition of the learners’ outstanding performance in class.
Classroom Context
The setting or environment where the teaching-learning process takes place. It also points to all the factors which may affect the teaching-learning process in the classroom.
Classroom Management System
will enable teachers to view and manage devices inside a classroom so they can make sure that their learners are actually doing the activities assigned to them.
Classroom ObservationTool – Results-based Performance Management System (COT-RPMS)
A subset of the full Classroom Observation Tool used for RPMS for Teachers.
Classroom Structure
The physical set-up of the learning environment which generally includes the arrangement of chairs, tables, and other equipment in the classroom designed to maximize learning.
Client
A person, group of people, or organization who is a recipient of the services or seek the services of the government.
Client Satisfaction
A client or stakeholder’s perception of whether an organization has met their requirements.
Cluster of Schools
group of schools which are geographically contiguous and brought together to improve the learning outcomes.
Co-curricular Activities
are authorized, voluntary, and non-graded engagements, whether on or off-campus, that reinforce the development of 21st-century skills conducted beyond the scheduled contact time between teachers and students. The activities must be anchored on both the content and performance standards in the curriculum.
Co-curricular Activities
activities and learning experiences that are undertaken side by side with the curricular activities. These learning experiences complement what learners are learning in school.
Communication
is an act or process of sending information to the DepEd officials, personnel, teachers and staff in the Department.
Communication Expense
communication costs incurred by personnel in attending a programmed L&D intervention of DepEd such as training, webinars, online course, etc.
Communication Expense
refers to the cost of using communication technologies such as mobile phone and internet, incurred by DepEd officials and personnel in the discharge of their official functions. It includes postpaid plan, prepaid load, electronic reloading, internet subscription fee, and other connected emerging method/technology.
Community
Barangay where the school is located. However, it may also be expanded to refer to the following:

– Adjacent barangays where a significant number of children enrolled in the school come from
– Municipality
– City
– Ancestral domain
Community ALS Implementors
refer to persons engaged either by DepEd or any local government unit (LGU) to deliver ALS programs to out-of-school children in specials cases and adults.
Community Learning Center (CLC)
is also called “Punlaan ng Karunungan” which is similar to a school. It serves as a learning hub in the community, a center for skills development and a community facility for local events.
Community Quarantine
The restriction of movement within, into, or out of the area of quarantine of individuals, large groups of people, or communities, designed to reduce the likelihood of transmission of COVID-19 among persons in and to persons outside of the affected area.
Comparative Assessment
refers to the process or method of determination of top candidates recommended for possible appointment. It involves the use of multiple evaluation techniques to evaluate the competencies of a qualified applicant vis-a-vis the competencies required by the position to be filled.
Competence
refers to the ability to perform tasks efficiently and effectively by exhibiting behaviors that demonstrate the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitude.
Competencies
Knowledge, skills and behavior that individuals demonstrate in achieving results. Competencies shall uphold the DepEd’s core values. They represent the way individuals define and live the values. (DepEd Order No. 2, s. 2015, p. 6) .
Competency
This refers to a specific skill performed with varying degrees of independence. It has different degrees of difficulty and performance levels. It also refers to the ability to perform activities according to the standards expected by drawing from one’s knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Competency Assessment
It is the process of collecting evidence and making judgments on whether competency has been achieved. It focuses in assessing an individual’s skills, knowledge, attitude and work values relative to a unit cr cluster of units of competency. This procedure is administered by TESDA-accredited assessors.
Competency Assessment
It is the process of collecting evidence and making judgments on whether competency has been achieved. It focuses in assessing an individual’s skills, knowledge, attitude and work values relative to a unit cr cluster of units of competency. This procedure is administered by TESDA-accredited assessors.
Competency Standards
refer to a set of knowledge, skills and attitude required to carry out successfully assigned roles, functions and responsibilities for a given position in the organization. Competency standards so far issued by the Department of Education for national adoption include Philippine Professional Standards for Standards (PPST) – adopted through DepEd Order No. 42 s. 2017, and National Competency-Based Standards for School Heads (NCBSSH) – adopted through DepEd Order 32 s. 2010.
Competency/ies
observable, measurable, and vital knowledge, skills, behaviors, or attributes required to perform a job. These are standardized through established tools such as Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST), Philippine Professional Standards for School Head (PPSSH), and Philippine Professional Standards for Supervisors (PPSS), or learning needs assessments (LNA).
Comprehensive Sexuality Education
age-appropriate, culturally relevant program to teaching about sexuality and relationships by providing scientifically accurate, realistic, non-judgmental information. (UNESCO 2009).
Conditionally Promoted
is the status of a learner who did not meet expectations in at most two (2) learning areas. The learner must pass remedial classes for learning areas where he/she failed, in order to be promoted to the next grade level. Otherwise, the learner is retained in the same grade level.
Conflict of interest
refers to situations in which financial or other personal considerations may compromise a researcher or research manager’s professional judgment in evaluating, conducting, or reporting research.
Conflict sensitivity
refers to the capacity of an organization, institution, or their individual members to understand the context of the area where they operate, i.e. the nature, history, causes and dynamics of social conflict in said area; and to understand how to interact with this context in order to minimize negative impacts and maximize positive impacts.
Conflict-affected areas
refer to areas where there are actual armed encounters between the government forces and armed groups and where armed groups have dominance in the state of affairs of the community.
Conflict-vulnerable areas
refer to communities that are proximate to conflict-affected areas where possible side-stepping of armed groups are imminent. It can also include geographically isolated and disadvantaged areas whose resources, actual or symbolic, are deemed valuable by the armed group.
Consolidated Financial Statements
financial statements of an economic entity (controlling entity and controlled entities) presented as those of a single entity
Content
This is the scope and sequence of topics and skills covered in each strand/domain /theme/ component.
Content Knowledge
Competencies that teachers are expected to master for them to teach efficiently and effectively.
Content Knowledge
Competencies that teachers are expected to master for them to teach efficiently and effectively.
Content Standards
identify and set the essential knowledge and understanding that should be learned. They cover a specified scope of sequential topics within each learning strand, domain, theme, or component. Content standards answer the question, “What should the learners know?”.
Contextualization
the educational process of relating the curriculum to a particular setting, situation or area of application to make the competencies relevant, meaningful, and useful to all learners.
Contextualization
refers to “educational processes relating the curriculum to a particular setting, situation or area of application to make the competencies relevant, meaningful, and useful to all learners” (DepEd Order no. 32, s. 2015).
Contingency Planning
a process that analyzes specific potential hazardous events or situations and preemptively establishes timely, effective and appropriate responses to such.
Continuing Appropriations
authorizations to support obligations for a specific purpose or project, such as multi-year construction projects which require the incurrence of obligations even beyond the budget year
Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
refers to the inculcation of advanced knowledge, skills, and ethical values in a post-licensure specialization or in an inter- or multidisciplinary field of study, for assimilation into professional practice, self-directed and research and/or lifelong learning (Republic Act No. 10912). The management of retention and renewal of the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) ID is dependent on the units earned by the public school teachers and school leaders through the different professional development programs and courses.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
refers to the inculcation of advanced knowledge, skills, and ethical values in a post-licensure specialization or in an inter- or multidisciplinary field of study, for assimilation into professional practice, self-directed and research and/or lifelong learning (Republic Act No. 10912 otherwise known as Continuing Professional Development Act of 2016).
Continuous Improvement
A value and a practice of continually assessing, analyzing, and acting on the improvement of key processes focusing on both the clients’ needs and the desired performance.
Continuous Improvement (CI) Process
a methodology to continually assess, analyze, and act on the performance improvement of key processes and service delivery, focusing on both stakeholder needs and the desired performance.
Continuous Improvement (CI) Process
A methodology to continually assess, analyze, and act on the performance improvement of key processes and service delivery, focusing on both stakeholder needs and the desired performance.
Continuous Improvement (CI) Projects
projects that revolve around the continuous improvement of an identified school process and service delivery related to access, quality, or governance, with the end view of improving learning outcomes.
Continuous Improvement (CI) Projects
Projects that revolve around the continuous improvement of an identified school process and service delivery related to access, quality or governance, with the end view of improving learning outcomes.
Contract of Service
refers to the engagement of services of an individual, private firm, other government agency, non-governmental agency, or international organization as consultant, learning service provider, or technical expert to undertake special project or job within a specific period.
Contractual
refers to an appointment issued to an appointee to a teaching position who shall teach specialized subjects in secondary education on a part-time basis. The inclusive period shall be indicated on the appointment for purposes of crediting services. Appointees to contractual teaching positions shall not be required to possess RA No. 1080 (Teacher) Eligibility.
Contractual Interest Rate (CIR)
The advertised or stated interest rate ona loan, without taking into account any fees or compounding of interest.
Controlled Document
A digital or hard-copy document which is required by a standards organization to be managed within a tightly controlled process that maintains the integrity of the document’s content through revisions.
Controlled Entity
an entity, including an unincorporated entity such as a partnership, which is under the control of another entity (known as the controlling entity)
Controlling Entity
an entity that has one or more controlled entities
Conversion of School(s)
as defined under Part IV.10 of DepED Order No. 40, s. 2014, is the process of changing, altering or transferring of the status, character of the curricular offerings or the administration, maintenance, supervision and conduct of a school from its present status, character, administration or management.
Conversion of School(s)
is the process of changing, altering or transferring of the status, character of the curricular offerings or the administration, maintenance, supervision and conduct of a school from its present status, character, administration or management.
Cost Sharing
refers to funding a portion of the estimated through another fund source.
Creative thinking skills
Involve exploring ideas, generating possibilities and looking for many right answers rather than just one.
Credit Memorandum
document issued by the bank informing an increase in the depositor’s (Agency’s/Entity’s) account, such as previous bank debit errors and collection directly deposited to the agency’s/entity’s bank account
Crisis management
involves plans and institutional arrangements to engage and guide the efforts of government, non-govemment, voluntary and private agencies in comprehensive and coordinated ways to respond to the entire spectrum of crisis needs.
Critical thinking skills
Refer to the many kinds of intellectual skills that (in its most basic expression) occurs when students are analyzing, evaluating, interpreting, or synthesizing information and applying creative thought to form an argument, solve a problem, or reach a conclusion.
Crucial Resources
refers to classrooms/school buildings, teaching and nonteaching positions, instructional materials, school desks/armchairs, equipment and other facilities necessary for the operation of school(s) in the delivery of basic education services to learners.
Culturally-appropriate teaching strategies
Teaching strategies that respect cultural differences between and among students and teachers.
Culture of Research
is the regular exercise of systematic inquiry to improve program and policy development and implementation.
Curricular Activities
opportunities and experiences undertaken by the learners in the classrooms, laboratories, workshops, and homes as well as school-based and out-of-school activities conducted to ensure the learners’ acquisition of the K to 12 learning – and the 21st-century skills. (DO 21 s., 2019)
Curriculum Adaptation
refers to the process of adjusting the deliveiy of the K to 12 Curriculum through accommodation and modification to ensure its responsiveness to the needs of learners with disabilities.
Curriculum Areas
Different learning/subject areas taught and learned in the basic education curriculum.
D
Daily Cash Report (DCR)
report indicating status of cash on a daily basis
Daily Living Skills Development Area
refers to where learners with disabilities are trained and practice the different daily activities.
Daily Travel Expenses (DTE)
the amounts authorized to cover expenses for local travel, which consist of (i) costs for hotel accommodation or lodging, including the prescribed taxes and services charges, (ii) meals, and (iii) incidental expenses, including cost for local or inland transportation and reasonable miscellaneous expenses at the place of assignment.
Damage and Loss Assessment
An assessment physical damage and economic losses of the disaster based on how much the disaster has changed the baseline data of the society.
Damages
the value of asset such as structures, equipment and other related physical properties that are affected at or immediate after the disaster occurrence.
Date of Official Enrollment
refers to the date when the parent/guardian/learner confirmed the enrollment earlier made thru submission of MLESF or the date when the learner started to participate in any learning activities by September 13, 2021 onwards.
Debit Memorandum
document issued by the bank informing a decrease in the account, such as previous bank credit errors or service charges and fees.
Delivery Unit
refers to the primary subdivision of the Department performing substantive line functions, technical services, or administrative support, as reflected in the Department’s organizational structure or functional chart. In DepEd, delivery units refer to the bureaus, services, and offices of the CO, the ROs, the SDOs, and the public schools.
Demonstration Teaching
Showcasing the Master Teachers’ teaching-learning practice either in their own classrooms which may be attended by their colleagues or in a formal demonstration festival in school, district or division.
Denial of Humanitarian Access
This refers to the intentional barring by physical force or administrative barriers of humanitarian aid, supplies, services, and personnel, into and out of an affected area.
Dental Service
provision of promotive, preventive and curative services to improve the oral health status of the learners.
DepED School Identification (ID)
is a unique six-digit number assigned to every school for purposes of identifying schools listed in the database of DepED’s Enhanced Basic Education Information System (EBEIS). It is also used as a system of distinguishing schools with the same name but located in different school districts/divisions/regions.
DepEd – Curriculum and Instruction
This strand ensures that the organization focuses on the delivery of a relevant, responsive, and effective basic education curriculum around which all other strands and offices provide support.
DepEd – Finance and Administration
This strand ensures the efficiency to support the organization as a whole to focus on its core business and thus attain its targets through the provision of finance and administrative services.
DepEd – Legal and Legislative Affairs
This strand enhances the capacity of the organization to deal with legal matters and to be proactive in moving forward its legislative agenda.
DepEd – Office of the Secretary
The Office of the Secretary (OSec) provides overall leadership and direction at the national level. Attached and support agencies to DepEd are included under the OSec.
DepEd Advisory
is an issuance containing information on events, scholarships, training opportunities for teachers and students conducted by non-DepEd organizations or agencies, which does not endorse any education-related activity of public stakeholders and private entities, organizations, institutions, or companies. It does not serve as an authority for interested DepEd nonteaching and teaching personnel to attend on official business.
DepEd Attached Agencies
refer to agencies attached to a specific department or agency, which contribute to its overall mandate but have fiscal and administrative autonomy. Attached agencies of DepEd are the following:

i. Early Child Care and Development (ECCD) Council;
ii. National Book Development Board (NBDB);
iii. National Council for Children’s Television (NCCT);
iv. National Museum; and
v. Philippine High School for the Arts (PHSA).
DepEd Commons
is an online repository of Open Educational Resources (OERs) that can be used by learners in a distance learning setup. The platform was so popular it was the fourth most searched item in the year 2020. To date the DepEd Commons has 10.5 million registered users of which 9.5 million are learners.
DepEd ETUlay
a free online tutorial platform for learners provided by excellent and inspiring educators.
DepEd Educational Systems
will guarantee that the software needed to use the hardware for educational purposes is available.

a) Learner Information System (LIS) is currently used to issue the unique Learner Reference Number (LRN), record the basic Learner profile, and generate school forms.

It will be expanded to cover additional information on the academic performance, health status, athletics record, and socio-economic background.
It will also be improved so that learners can just order their permanent records through the internet without needing to go back to the school where they graduated from.
Permanent records will no longer be lost during disasters that may affect the school.

b) DepEd Commons will contain Open Educational Resources (OERs) and e-books for each grade level and subject area for each week in the school calendar.

These materials can be used to enrich regular classes as well as in distance learning whenever calamities, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, prevent learners from going to school.

c) LR Portal will provide educational resources that are intended to be printed, as well as the quality assurance mechanisms to produce these items.

d) DepEd Learning Management System (DLMS) will help teachers create virtual classrooms where blended learning and digital quizzes can occur both in face-to-face classes, or in conditions where distance learning is required. It will also provide analytics that will allow teachers to identify which competencies a particular learner is weak in.

e) Classroom Management System will enable teachers to view and manage devices inside a classroom so they can make sure that their learners are actually doing the activities assigned to them.

f) Monitoring Applications can be used by DepEd to launch quick surveys and program tracking systems that are cellphone-based.

One of the major functions that it will perform is to facilitate the contact tracing of COVID-19 cases among teachers and learners in a secure manner that is compliant with the Data Privacy Act.

g) Telemedicine System will establish a computerized diagnosis and referral system to protect the health of learners.

h) Microsoft Subscription covers a range of products such as Office 365, which is needed to deliver the digital literacy skills component of the K-12 curriculum, Power BI for generating analytics, and Azure Cloud Services where DepEd systems are hosted.

i) Adobe Subscriptions cover a range of products from the Creative Cloud which is needed to deliver the digital literacy skills component of the K-12 curriculum and localize OERs, as well as Adobe Sign that is used for paperless transactions.
DepEd Integrated Logistics Management System (DILMS)
refers to the whole structure of logistical solutions designed to enhance the efficient and effective distribution and delivery of procured goods, facilitate contract monitoring and data gathering, and bridge the gap between procurement management and asset management for improved governance of supply chain and resource management functions in the Department.
DepEd Issuance
is an official document containing policies, procedures or information released and signed by the DepEd secretary or other authorized officials. It is uploaded on www.deped.gov.ph for the information and compliance of the concerned public.
DepEd Learning Management System (DLMS)
allows the Department to create courses that correspond to the competencies in the curriculum. Each course is organized in a series of activities where learners are required to read a digital Self-Learning Module (SLM), watch a DepEd TV lecture, and take an online quiz. Aside from being able to organize the activities that learners need to go through the DLMS allows teachers to monitor if activities have actually been done by learners and to assess the performance through quizzes deployed in the system. The DLMS also gives teachers the flexibility to add or remove activities in the templated courses that have already been prepared for them to make the courses more relevant to the context of their learners.
DepEd Learning and Development (L&D)
is a system established to help ensure that DepEd has the needed competent and committed human resources to achieve its mandate; setting the framework for effective and efficient management of DepEd’s L&D programs for leaders, school managers, and teaching and non-teaching personnel.
DepEd Logo
refers to a mark for recognition. It is utilized in school bulletin boards, publications, reports, circulars, T-shirt printing, stationeries and others (DO 69, s. 2003).
DepEd Manual of Style
is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication of the Department.
DepEd Memorandum
is an issuance containing instructions or information, which are temporary in nature.
DepEd Memorandum with limited applications (circulation)
is an issuance similar to DM but limited in scope and concerns only a few regions or offices.
DepEd Office Memorandum
is an issuance similar to DepEd Memorandum (DM) but concerns only DepEd Central Office (CO) personnel and staff.
DepEd Order
is an issuance confined to announcement of policies or of matters which are of general and reasonably permanent in nature.
DepEd Policies
are principles, rules and regulations or guidelines adopted by the DepEd through a systematic, evidence-based and participatory process, in order to guide its personnel’s and education stakeholders’ actions and decisions, toward attaining basic education outcomes. Policies reflect the DepEd’s core values and are demonstrated in its programs, projects and activities. Policies are generally characterized in terms of the following elements:

i. Content. Policies establish principles, rules and regulations or guidelines which are usually broad in orientation. To ensure implementation, DepEd shall issue policies which include procedures or instructions for upholding the principles, rules and regulations or guidelines;
ii. Effect. Policies govern actions or behavior, and can create rights and obligations to cany out the DepEd’s mandate;
iii. Duration. Policies are usually long-term in application;
iv. Scope/ Scale. Policies often pertain to institution-wide concerns and are also usually institution-wide or nationwide in application; and
v. Issuing Authority. Policies are promulgated and signed by DepEd Secretary or other officials with legal authority to do so.
DepEd Procedures andInstructions Manual (PAWIM)
Work A document that provides the procedures on the conduct of QMS in DepEd
DepEd Process Map
A map that details the intended clients, outcomes, and four (4) major processes of DepEd – Management, Core, Support, and Outsourced processes.
DepEd QMS Manual
A manual that articulates DepEd’s profile, its management, core, support and outsourced processes, the list of
stakeholders and partners, and its commitment to provide quality basic education services.
DepEd Schools
are all public basic education schools offering the basic education program in kindergarten, elementary, junior high school, and/or senior high school supervised by the Department of Education.
DepEd Seal
refers to the symbol of the Department duly approved by the Office of the President, Malacahan, Manila, which shall be utilized in all official communications (DO 63, s. 2011). It must be treated with utmost respect.
DepEd Seal
refers to the symbol of the Department duly approved by the Office of the President, Malacahan, Manila, which shall be utilized in all official communications (DO 63, s. 2011). It must be treated with utmost respect.
DepEd Service Providers (DSP)
refer to any DepEd Central Office bureaus, services or units, DepEd Regional Offices or DepEd Schools Division Offices that provide professional development programs and courses to teachers and school leaders in accordance with DepEd Order 001, s. 2020.
DepEd TV
delivers video lectures on IBC-13 from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., Monday to Saturday. It also offers lessons for all grade levels via free TV IBC-12, local cable televisions (CATV), digital black boxes and digital terrestrial TV (satellite).
DepEd TV Youtube Channel
offers readily available DepEd TV episodes for watching and downloading (all grade levels).
DepEd issuances
are official documents containing policies, procedures, or information released and/or signed by the DepEd Secretary or other authorized officials of the DepEd pursuant to its mandate. Refer to Annex la for the Table of Authority. The different DepEd issuances are the following:

i. DepEd Order;
ii. DepEd Memorandum;
iii. Office Order;
iv. Office Memorandum; and
iv. DepEd Advisory.
Deposits-in-Transit
amounts of agency/entity deposits in the bank but which are yet to be recorded by the bank until the next period

usually pertain to late deposits in the last day of business for a period
Development Budget Coordination Committee (DBCC)
primarily to review and approve the macroeconomic targets, revenue projections, borrowing level, aggregate budget level, and expenditure priorities and recommend to the Cabinet and the President of the consolidated public sector financial position and the national government fiscal program.
Developmental Domains
refer to the seven (7) learning areas in the Kindergarten curriculum namely: 1) Language, Literacy, and Communication (Wika, Karunungan sa Pagbasa at Pagsulat); 2) Socio-Emotional Development (Pagpapaunlad ng Sosyo-Emosyunal at Kakayahang Makipamuhay); 3) Values Development (Kagandahang Asal); 4) Physical Health and Motor Development (Kalusugang Pisikal at Pagpapaunlad sa Kakayahang Motor); 5) Aesthetic/Creative Development (Sining); 6) Mathematics (Matematika), and; 7) Understanding of the Physical and Natural Environment (Pag-unawa sa Pisikal at Natural na Kapaligiran).
Developmentally Appropriate Learning Experience
Teaching and learning activities and tasks suited to the needs, abilities, skills, and developmental level of learners
Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)
is an approach to teaching based on child development and early childhood education research. It is the application of knowledge and skills to suit the age, individuality, and the social and cultural backgrounds of each learner. This practice allows teachers to modify their teaching strategies to respond to diverse learner needs.
Diagnostic assessment
Assesses what the learner already knows prior to instruction. It also analyzes the nature of difficulties and misconceptions that the learner might have, which, if undiagnosed, might affect their learning of newer concepts. Based on DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2015, there are only two types of classroom assessment, namely, formative and summative. Formative assessment already covers diagnostic assessment.
Differentiated Supervision
is a type of supervision that recognizes the newlyhired teachers’ level of experience, different teaching needs, and their goals to improve instructional skills.
Differentiated Teaching
Teaching-learning processes involving a wide variety of texts, tasks, processes and products suited to the various learning needs of diverse students.
Direct Payment System (DPS)
payment procedure whereby the MDS-GSB shall, upon receipt of NCA an LDDAP-ADA from DBM pay the CCC not earlier than 24 hours but not later than 48 hours, through direct credit to the CCC current account.
Disability
refers to a long-term physical, mental, intellectual, behavioral, or sensory condition that substantially limits one or more physiological or anatomical function of an individual or activities of such individual which results to limitation or difficulty encountered in executing a task or action (UNCRPD, 2006; Section 4 (c), RA 7277).
Disadvantaged learners
refers to all types of learners who are considered marginalized and disadvantaged and/or in difficult circumstances that need to be addressed through appropriate and relevant basic education programs and services. These learners include, among others, learners with disabilities; out-of-school children, youth and adults; indigenous peoples; Muslim learners; children in situations of armed conflict; street children; and children in conflict with the law.
Disaster
a serious disruption of a community or society’s functioning due to widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses, damages, and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Disaster Preparedness
capacities developed by institutions and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent, or current hazard events or conditions. This includes setting-up early warning systems, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, creating coordination and communication mechanisms, evacuation protocols, other training and field exercises.
Disaster Response
services and assistance during or immediately after a disaster to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety, and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. This includes disaster relief activities.
Disaster Risk
the potential disaster losses in lives, health status, livelihood, assets and services, which could occur to a particular community or a Society over some specified future time period.
Disaster Risk Reduction
the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposures to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.
Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
the systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster.
Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM)
The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and reduce the causal factors of disasters. Reducing exposure to hazards, lessening vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improving preparedness and early warning for adverse events are all examples of disaster risk reduction and management.
Disbursement
A settlement of government obligations either in currency, check or constructive cash such as the issuance of Tax Remittance Advice (TRA) for the remittance to BIR of taxes withheld from employees and suppliers and Non-Cash Availment Authority for direct payments made by international financial institutions to suppliers and consultants of foreign assisted projects.
Disbursement Voucher
is a form used to pay an obligation to employees/individuals/agencies/creditors for goods purchased or services rendered.
Disbursements
actual amounts spent or paid out of the budgeted amount

constitute all cash paid out during a given period in currency (cash) or by check/ADA

the settlement of government payables/obligations by cash, check or ADA

covered by DV/Petty Cash Voucher (PCV)/Payroll
Displaced HEI applicant
refers to an applicant who has a minimum teaching experience of at least one (1) complete academic year in an HEI as of academic year (AY) 2014-2015 and has been displaced as a result of the implementation of RA 10533 otherwise known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013.”
Disruption
Disturbance, interruption or altogether stoppage of governance, business, and social processes particularly on the public services and access to fulfillment to basic commodities/needs.
Distance Learning
This refers to a learning delivery modality where learning takes place between the teacher and the learners who are geographically remote from each other during instruction. This modality has three types: Modular Distance Learning (MDL), Online Distance Learning (ODL), and television (TV)/Radio-Based Instruction.
District ALS Coordinator (DALSC)
refers to a public school teacher who is officially designated by the Schools Division Superintendent (SDS) to perform coordination functions for the ALS program in addition to his/her regular duties as a learning facilitator.
Division ALIVE Coordinator (DAC)
This refers to division focal persons handling ALIVE program.
Division Checking Committee (DCC)
The committee at the Schools Division Office responsible for the conduct of the annual checking of forms to ensure the consistency and quality of school forms.
Domain
A broad conceptual sphere of school leadership practices defined by specific strands in the Philippine Professional Standards for School Heads.
Domain
Broad conceptual sphere of teaching and learning practices defined by specific strands in the set of professional standards for teachers.
Dropbox Enrollment
type of remote enrollment strategy where parents may just drop the accomplished MLESF in the enrollment dropbox or kiosk/booth, whichever is appropriate, located in front of the school gate, in front of the Barangay halls and other strategic locations that are accessible to parents and guardians.
Dropped Out
is the status of a learner who left the school and did not complete the full term for reasons other than transferring to another school or ALS Program and death. The system will automatically update the status of the learner as “Dropped Out” if the originating school tags the learner as “No Longer in School” and he/she is not enrolled in another school.
E
E-library/Instructional Materials Service Area
refers to the repository of electronic copies of learning resources where the learners can download to their respective devices or read the materials using the devices or computers or reproduce different accessible formats of learning resources based on their needs.
EGRA or EGMA Assessor
is a DepEd personnel (teacher, school head, or supervisor) who has been trained to administer EGRA or EGMA following the standard procedures for test administration.
ESC-participating Junior High School (ESC-participating JHS)
A private junior high school that offers the regular JHS program and is certified to participate in the ESC, and is thus subject to these program guidelines.
Early Grade Math Assessment (EGMA)
is an individually administered oral test that aims to measure the primary numeracy and mathematics skills of children in the early grades. It was adapted by the DepEd following international standards and guidelines.
Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA)
is an individually administered oral assessment that aims to assess foundational literacy skills of children in the early grades. It was adapted by the DepEd following international standards and guidelines.
Early Language Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (ELLNA)
an assessment administered at the end of Grade 3 as a key stage assessment to determine if learners are meeting the learning standards in early language, literacy, and numeracy.
Early registration
the pre-registration of incoming Kindergarten, Grades 1, 7, and 11 learners which takes place prior to the opening of classes.
Education Research
is the “scientific field of study that examines education and learning processes and the human attributes, interactions, organization, and institutions that shape educational outcomes”.
Education Service Contracting (ESC)
A DepEd program aimed at providing access to quality private junior high school education, thereby aiding in the decongestion of overcrowded public junior high schools. In ESC, the excess capacities of certified private junior high schools are “contracted” through slot allocations for qualified elementary school graduates who wish to pursue their junior high school (JHS) education in private schools and who would otherwise have gone to public schools. The slots come with annual subsidies called ESC grants, and program beneficiaries are called ESC grantees or, for the purposes of these guidelines, simply grantees.
Education Service Contracting (ESC)
aimed at democratizing and improving access to quality secondary education through government extension of financial assistance to deserving elementary school graduates who wish to pursue their secondary education in private schools
Education Service Contracting (ESC) grantees
refers to a learner who participates in the ESC program, a program of financial assistance by DepEd for learners in certified private JHSs.
Education Support Services Division (ESSD)
shall refer to the EPS counterpart in the Regional Offices.
Education Voucher System (EVS)
certificate of funding where the government issues a coupon directly to students to enable them to enroll in eligible private educational institutions or non-DepEd public schools under a full or partial tuition subsidy.

students and their parents or guardians have control of the private school of their own choosing.
Education in Emergencies
a set of linked project activities that enable structured learning to continue in times of crisis or long-term instability, especially in the context of armed conflict.
Education-in-Emergencies
refers to quality learning opportunities for all ages in situations of crisis. It provides physical, psychosocial, and cognitive protection that can sustain and save lives without sacrificing the goal of each learner to learn.
Educational Assistance
refers to the provision of monetary and nonmonetary assistance for learners with disabilities be able to complete their basic education, such as transportation or meal allowance, extra time for remedial instruction or tutoring, among others.
Educational Field Trip
a carefully planned activity involving travel to sites outside the classroom and school premises where lesson delivery usually takes place for firsthand learning opportunities, the design of which is built around achieving particular core competencies of the curriculum.
Educational Placement
refers to an appropriate learning environment where the learner with disability is placed such as mainstream and inclusive class, resource room, self-contained class, home, or hospital; this will be based on assessment results.
Educational Programs and Services
refers to any educational interventions, programs and services that will ensure support to learners with disabilities for an equal opportunity to access quality basic education.
Effective Classroom Environment
a positive and conducive classroom climate essential for optimal teaching and learning to occur. In order to establish this type of environment, a respectful, mutual, and encouraging relationship is required between the teacher and each learner.
Effective Interest Rate (EIR)
The rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash flows through the life of the loan to the net amount of loan proceeds. Also the rate paid due to the result of compounding over a given time period.
Effectiveness
means producing a decided, decisive, or desired effect.
Efficiency
is the quality of being productive without waste.
Electronic reloading
also known as e-load, is a service which allows retailers to automatically reload or top-up prepaid credits of a mobile phone subscriber.
Elementary / Secondary Diploma
refers to the academic record issued by a learning institution which certifies that a learner has successfully completed the academic requirements for graduation prescribed by the Department of Education for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Elementary School
is a public school offering elementary education primarily concerned with providing basic education which corresponds to Kindergarten to Grade 6. The entrant age to this level is typically five (5) years old.
Eligible and Non-Eligible Activities and Expenditures (Communication expenses)
Communication expenses shall refer to the cost of using communication technologies such as mobile phone and internet which is incurred by the grantee in the implementation of its research. It includes postpaid plan, prepaid load, electronic reloading, internet subscription fee, and other emerging method / technology.
Emergency
unforeseen or sudden occurrence, especially danger, demanding immediate action.
Enhanced Basic Education Information System (EBEIS)
The official website and portal of DepEd that maintains a database of education statistics, sector performance indicators and profile of public and private schools, learning centers and other education service providers.
Enhanced Basic Education Information System (EBEIS)
maintains a database of education statistics, sector performance indicators and profile of public and private schools, learning centers and other education service providers

web-based system designed to enhance information management at all levels of the education system (school, division, region and national levels) through streamlined processes and use of information and communication technologies

delivers relevant and accurate information to school heads, education managers, policy makers and various stakeholders of the education system
Enhanced School Improvement Plan
is an improved planning process released in 2015, which uses tools of the Continuous Improvement (CI) Methodology, emphasizing a more participatory and learner-centered approach and encouraging deeper analysis of the school/CLC context through evidence-based problem analysis.
Enrollment
the process of registering learners into the Learner Information System (LIS) upon the submission of the required supporting documents and first date of attendance.
Enrollment Booth/Kiosk
a dedicated place/space for enrollment within the school and Barangay. It need not to be manned by school personnel for as long as necessary information materials and LESFs are readily available to the public. This will strictly be set up upon exhausting all means to remotely reach parents/guardians and/or learners for the enrollment.
Enrollment Focal Person (EFP)
teachers without advisory class designated/appointed by the school head responsible for accommodating kindergarten, transferee, and Balik-Aral enrollees.
Entities
refer to NGAs and GOCCs maintaining SAGF

may be a group of NGAs and GOCCs combined as a single entity (e.g. central and regional offices including their operating units)
Equal Opportunity
refers to the non-discrimination principle that allows any applicant within or outside DepEd to apply for a position, irrespective of age, sex, sexual orientation and gender identity, civil status, disability, religion, ethnicity, or political beliefs.
Equitable
refers to the proportionate appropriation of resources and opportunities.
Equity
refers to the value of securing all learners’ rights to education, and their rights within and through education to realize their potentials and aspirations.
Equivalents Record Form (ERF)
a document indicating the educational preparation, training, teaching experience and extra curricular activities for professional growth undertaken by a teacher. It is used to validate the classification level of teachers covered by the Teachers’ Pay Preparation Schedule (TPPS).
Establishment of School
is the process of initiating, instituting, organizing, operating, conducting and maintaining a new school, in a barangay, municipality, city or province by administrative authority of the DepED Regional Office.
Establishment of a Stand-alone SHS
is the process of initiating, instituting, organizing, operating, conducting and maintaining a new SHS in a barangay, municipality, city or province by administrative authority of the DepED RO.
Evaluative Assessment
refers to the multiple evaluation techniques in the determination of competencies of an applicant vis-a-vis the required competencies of the position to be filled.
Evaluative Assessment
refers to the multiple evaluation techniques in the determination of competencies of an applicant vis-a-vis the required competencies of the position to be filled.
Evidence-based
the needs identified are supported by school-community data and the proposed solutions are tested and proven to be effective.
Evidence-based Practice
use of systematic decision-making processes or provision of services which have been shown, through available scientific evidence, to consistently improve measurable client outcomes (Evidence Based Practice Institute, 2012).
Exchange transactions
transactions in which one entity receives assets or services, or has liabilities extinguished, and directly gives approximately equal value (primarily in the form of cash, goods, services, or use of assets) to another entity in exchange.
Executive/Managerial Position
refers to a second level position whose functions involve exercising management over people, resource, and/or policy, as well as planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, controlling, and overseeing the activities of an organization, unit thereof or of a group; and requires some degree of professional, technical, or scientific knowledge and experience.
Exigencies of the Service
a public school teacher may be required to render more than six hours of actual classroom teaching or more than eight hours of work in a day; provided that additional compensation computed at the same hourly rate as the regular compensation, plus a premium of twenty-five percent of the hourly rate shall be paid for actual classroom teaching in excess of six hours and for work performed in excess of eight hours.
Exit Assessment
a standardized set of examinations taken by learners in Years 6, 10, and 12. The test, which covers the 21st century skills, is designed to determine if learners are meeting the learning standards set forth in the K to 12 Basic Education Program.
Expanded Modified Disbursement Payment Scheme (ExMDPS)
payment procedures whereby the MDS-GSB shall pay the creditors/payees listed in the LDDAP-ADA not later than 48 hours but not earlier than 24 hours upon receipt of the said document from the National Government Agency (NGA)/Operating Unit (OU).
Expenditure Matrix
refers to the prepared expenditure matrix for the program support funds allocated for each operating unit using the Program Management Information System (PMIS)-generated template.
Expenses
decreases in economic benefits or service potential during the reporting period in the form of outflows or consumption of assets or incurrence of liabilities that result in decreases in net assets/equity, other than those relating to distributions to owners.
External Certification Audit
An audit of the QMS to verify conformance against ISO 9001 standards as part of the process of ISO Certification conducted every three (3) years by a third-party certifying body.
External Partners
refer to individuals, entities, agencies, and organizations that work with DepEd in the schools, SDOs, regional offices (ROs) and central office (CO) in the conduct of child rights, including child protection, initiatives. They include, but are not limited to, local government units (LGUs), other government agencies, international agencies, non-govemment and civil society organizations, and other private and corporate entities.
External Partners
refer to individuals, entities, agencies, and organizations that work with DepEd in the schools, schools division offices (SDOs), regional offices (ROs) and central office (CO) in the conduct of child rights in education initiatives. They include, but are not limited to, local government units (LGUs), other government agencies, international organizations, non-government and civil society organizations, other private and corporate entities, and individuals.
External Partnerships Service (EPS)
shall refer to the Office in DepEd CO that caters external stakeholders and promotes activities and programs for partnership building.
e-IMPACT
Enhanced Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers
F
Face-to-face
This refers to a learning delivery modality where the students and the teacher are both physically present in the classroom, and there are opportunities for active engagement, immediate feedback, and the socio-emotional development of learners.
Features of Practice
Specific classroom practices, which may characterize a particular level in the COT Rubric.
Field Offices
are the regions, divisions, schools, and learning centers where the policy and principle of the governance of basic education shall be translated into programs, projects, and services.
Final Budget
original budget adjusted for all reserves, carry-over amounts, transfers, allocations and other authorized legislative or similar authority changes applicable to the budget period.
Financial Capability
the ability of consumers to use the acquired financial literacy to make better informed decisions about managing their finances.
Financial Education
the systematic process of teaching and learning to acquire financial literacy and improve financial capability.
Financial Health
a condition in which a learner/consumer can balance income and expenses, build and maintain reserves, manage existing debts, plan and prioritize, manage and recover from financial shocks, and use an effective range of financial tools.
Financial Inclusion
the effective use by financial consumers of suitable financial services that are safely delivered through digital and traditional channels that can empower them to achieve their financial goals.
Financial Instrument
any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Financial Literacy
the level of knowledge of a learner about financial concepts and principles.
Financial Plan (FP)
categorization of the agency budget into “For Comprehensive Release” (FCR) and “For Later Release” (FLR) or the negative list
Financial Reporting
process of preparation, presentation and submission of general purpose financial statements and other reports

the objective of financial reporting is to provide information about the entity that is useful to users for accountability purposes and decision-making
First Level Position
refers to a position involved in structured work in support of office operations or engaged in clerical, trades, crafts, or custodial service which involve sub-professional work in a non-supervisory or supervisory capacity.
First Level Positions
includes clerical trades and crafts, and custodial services which involve sub-professional work in a non-supervisory or supervisory capacity.
Fitness
refers to ensuring that the competencies of an individual match with the competency requirements of a position.
Flexible Learning Options (FLOs)
menu of learning interventions and pathways that are responsive to the needs, context, circumstances, and diversity of learners.
For Comprehensive Release (FCR)
General Appropriations Act (GAA) as obligational authority, replacing the Agency Budget Matrix (ABM)
For Later Release (FLR)
Special Allotment Release Order (SARO) as obligation authority subject to compliance of required documents/clearances.
Foreign Assisted Projects (FAP)
government projects which are wholly or partly financed by foreign loans and/or foreign grants.
Foreign or International Schools
refers to schools duly established and authorized in accordance with the existing Philippine laws to operate certain educational programs that primarily and principally adhere to either universally accepted and recognized educational policies and standards or the unique differentially prescribed system of education of a particular country other than the Philippines.
Form 137
refers to the permanent school learner record showing the historical academic and co-curricular records of the learner.
Form 138
refers to the document showing the academic performance of a learner in a given school year.
Formative Assessment
is a process that involves teachers using evidence about what learners know and can do to inform and improve their teaching. This process, through the teacher’s immediate feedback, enables students to take responsibility for their own learning and identify areas where they do well and where they need help.
Formative assessment
Refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they have not yet achieved so that adjustments can be made to lessons, instructional techniques, and academic support. (Please also refer to DepED Order No. 8, s. 2015, p. 2 on its 3-paragraph definition.)
Formative assessment
may be seen as assessment for learning so teachers can make adjustments in their instruction. It is also assessment as learning wherein students reflect on their own progress. According to the UNESCO Program on Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future (UNESCO-TLSF), formative assessment refers to the ongoing forms of assessment that are closely linked to the learning process. It is characteristically informal and is intended to help students identify strengths and weaknesses in order to learn from the assessment experience.
Forward Estimates
projections or estimation of the future costs of existing policies

also serves as the validation instrument of determining the reasonableness of agency proposals on existing programs/projects/activities
Functional Life Path
refers to the curricular exit in which the primary objective is to ensure that LWDs are able to take care of themselves, pursue their own interests, and live independent lives.
Fund Cluster
refers to an accounting entity (similar to a bank account) for recording expenditures and revenues associated with a specific activity for which accounting records are maintained and periodic financial reports are prepared.
G
GAD Plan and Budget (GPB)
is not about creating separate budgets for women, or solely increasing spending on women’s programs. Rather, gender-responsive budgeting seeks to ensure that the collection and allocation of public resources is carried out in ways that are effective and contribute to advancing gender equality and women’s empowerment. It should be based on in-depth analysis that identifies effective interventions for implementing policies and laws that advance women’s rights. It provides tools to assess the different needs and contributions of men and women, and boys and girls, within the existing revenues, expenditures, and allocations and calls for adjusting budget policies to benefit all groups.
Gender and Development (GAD)
refers to the development perspective and process that are participatory and empowering, equitable, sustainable, free from violence, respectful of human rights, supportive of self-determination and actualization of human potentials. It seeks to achieve gender equality as a fundamental value that should be reflected in development choices; seeks to transform society’s social, economic, and political structures and questions the validity of gender roles these ascribe to women and men; contends that women are active agents of development and not just passive recipients of development assistance; and stresses the need of women to organize themselves and participate in political processes to strengthen their legal rights.
Gender and Development (GAD)
organization tasked to collectively nurture the full potential of women through education and strengthened participation in evolving a responsive and caring community
Gender awareness
refers to the ability to identify problems arising from gender inequality and discrimination, even if these are not immediately apparent.
Gender equality
refers to the principle asserting the equality of men and women and their rights to enjoy equal conditions realizing their full human potentials to contribute to and benefit from the results of development, and with the state recognizing that all human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights.
Gender equity
moves beyond a focus on equal treatment. It means giving to those who have less on the basis of needs, and taking steps to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field.
Gender expression
refers to the way in which a person acts to communicate gender within a given culture; for example, in terms of clothing, communication patterns and interests. A person’s gender expression may or may not be consistent with socially prescribed gender roles, and may or may not reflect his or her gender identity.
Gender identity
is understood to refer to each person’s deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body (which may involve, if freely chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical, or other means) and other expressions of gender, including dress, speech, and mannerisms.
Gender mainstreaming in education
is the process of assessing the implications for girls and boys or women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, at all levels of the education system. It is a strategy for making girls’ and women’s, as well as boys’ and men’s, concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of education policies and programs so that girls and boys or women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality in education.
Gender responsiveness
refers to taking action to correct gender bias and discrimination so as to ensure gender equality and equity. It entails consistent and systematic attention to the differences between men and women with a view to addressing structural constraints to gender equality.
Gender sensitivity
is the ability to perceive existing gender differences, issues, and inequalities and to incorporate these into strategies and actions.
Gender-Responsive Basic Education (GRBE)
is inclusive education that ensures girls’ and boys’ and women’s and men’s equal access to learning opportunities, addresses gender-based barriers and the intersection of different forms of discrimination, takes affirmative steps where necessary to reduce gender gaps and disparities in the management of the learning process, provides children a learner-friendly environment that addresses their diverse learning needs and results in the progressive achievement of gender equality in educational outcomes.
Gender-based Violence
any violence inflicted by reason of one’s sex. (RA 9262)
Gender-based discrimination
refers to any gender-based distinction, exclusion, or restriction that has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise by men and women regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, and civil status, on the basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil, or any other field.
Gender-based violence
refers to violence that targets individuals or groups on the basis of their gender. This includes acts that inflict physical, mental, or sexual harm or suffering, the threat of such acts, coercion, and other deprivations of liberty.
Gender-fair language
is understood as language that is gender sensitive or non-sexist.
General Allotment Release Order (GARO)
comprehensive authority issued to all national government agencies to incur obligations not exceeding an authorized amount

no need of special clearance or approval
General Appropriations Act (GAA)
a law on budgetary programs and projects for each agency of the government, with the corresponding appropriations for each program and project, including statutory provisions of specific agency or general applicability.

embodies the President’s thrust for inclusive development in social and economic services that are invested in empowering people and creating more economic opportunities for them.
General Appropriations Act Release Document
serves as the obligational authority for the comprehensive release of budgetary items appropriated in the GAA, categorized as For Comprehensive Release (FCR).
General Appropriations Bill (GAB)
proposal of budgetary programs and projects of the country

becomes General Appropriations Act (GAA) when approved by Congress and eventually signed by the President of the Republic of the Philippines
General Education Teacher
is an individual with a professional license to teach and who handles typically developing learners and learners with disabilities in an inclusive class.
General Purpose Financial Statements
those intended to meet the needs of users who are not in a position to demand reports tailored to meet their particular information needs.
Gifts, Donations, and Goods In-kind
voluntary transfers of assets, including cash or other monetary assets, goods in-kind, and services in-kind that one entity makes to another, normally free from stipulations.
Governance and Operations
This strand ensures the capacity of the organization to continuously improve and be strategic in managing the environment for which “teaching and learning” take place.

In accordance with RA 9155, the Secretary of Education delegates the supervision of field offices (regional and schools division offices) to the Undersecretary supervising the Governance and Operations strand.

1. The Office of the Regional Director provides leadership and management of the Department’s mandate at the regional level; and
2. The Office of the Schools Division Superintendent provides local management and administration of the Department’s mandate at the schools’ division level.
Governing body of the private learning institution (Governing Body)
refers to the group of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee activities of the private learning institution for the purpose of administering the affairs of the said institution.
Government Accounting
encompasses the processes of analyzing, recording, classifying, summarizing and communicating all transactions involving the receipt and disposition of government funds and property, and interpreting the results thereof.
Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE)
Republic Act 8545 (amending R.A. 6728), or the “Expanded Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE).

main objective is to decongest public secondary schools by “contracting” the excess capacities of private high schools through the provision of subsidies for students who, otherwise, would have gone to the public high schools.
Government Budget
financial plan of a government for a given period, usually for a fiscal year, which shows what its resources are, and how they will be generated and used over the fiscal period.

government’s key instrument for promoting its socioeconomic objectives.

income, expenditures, and sources of borrowings of the National Government (NG) that are used to achieve national objectives, strategies, and programs.
Government Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS)
IT-based system for budget preparation, management, execution, accounting, and reporting that will be implemented by the Philippine Government to improve public financial management processes and enhance greater accountability and transparency across National Government Agencies (NGAs).

designed to make use of modern information and communication technologies to help the government to plan and use its financial resources more efficiently and effectively.

web-based application that will enable government agencies to generate real-time, reliable and accurate financial reports to aid decision making, enabling citizens to know where public funds are spent.
Government Servicing Banks (GSB)
financial institutions authorized, upon accreditation by the Monetary Board, to accept government deposits and perform banking services on behalf of government agencies

presently, only three government financial institutions have been designated to be servicing banks of the Modified Disbursement Scheme (MDS), namely: Land Bank of the Philippines, Development Bank of the Philippines, and Philippine Veterans Bank
Government Servicing Banks (GSBs)
are financial institutions that accept government deposits and perform banking services on behalf of government agencies. To date, the DepEd’s GSBs are as follows: 1) Land Bank of the Philippines; 2) Development Bank of the Philippines; and 3) Philippine Veterans Bank.
Government and Community Stakeholders
shall refer to NGAs, GOCCs, LGUs, CSOs, and community stakeholders.
Grade 10 completer
refers to a learner who is expected to complete Junior High School (JHS) in formal or Alternative Learning System (ALS) at the end of SY 2020-202, or had completed Grade 10 not eartier than 2016 and had not previously enrolled for Grade 11.
Grade Level Enrollment Chair (GLEC)
personnel assigned to manage and facilitate a smooth enrollment process for specific grade level.
Grade-level Awards
are given to qualified learners for every grade level at the end of the school year. Candidates for the awards are deliberated by the Awards Committee (AC) if they have met the given criteria.
Grading
is the way of reporting assessment data by assigning a value to the results as a record of students’ ability, achievement, or progress (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2020).
Grant
an amount provided by DepEd or any organization/government agency for the purpose of conducting research.
Grantee
refers to an individual or group who has received a research grant and is conducting a research project.
Grassroots Participatory Budgeting (GPB)
also known as ‘bottom-up budgeting’

an approach in formulating the budget proposal of agencies, taking into consideration the development needs of poor municipalities and cities as identified in their respective local development plan and/or local anti-poverty action plan formulated with the meaningful participation of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)
Grave child rights violations (GCRVs)
refer to the crimes committed against children that constitute flagrant violations of their human rights and have severe consequences on their lives. These crimes include intentional and causal killing or maiming of children, recruitment or use of children involved in armed conflict, rape and other forms of sexual violence against children, abduction of children, attacks against schools, or denial of humanitarian access to children.
Grievance
refers to a work-related discontentment or dissatisfaction which had been expressed verbally or in writing, and which, in the aggrieved employee’s opinion, has been ignored or dropped without due consideration.
Grievance Machinery
a system or method of determining and finding the best way to address the specific cause or causes of a grievance.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
measures total output within the geographic boundaries of the country, regardless of the nationality of the entities producing the output
Gross National Product (GNP)
a measure of the market value of the output of final goods and services produced by a national economy during a specific period of time, usually a year.
H
Hardship Index (HI)
refers to any number from 0 to 1 representing the degree of hardship of a particular school combining all the variables identified as hardship factors: time and cost of transportation from school to Schools Division Office (SDO), human violence, availability of temporary learning spaces, level of poverty, and availability of basic amenities (e.g. telecommunication, water and electricity services). The closer the value of the index to 1, the higher the degree of difficulty of the school situation.
Hardship Post (HP)
refers to a workstation (Public School/Community Learning Center) located in areas characterized by extraordinarily hard, uncomfortable and extreme difficulties based on the hardship factors measured by the HI.
Hazard
a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
Hazard map
A map illustrating the areas at risk of natural disasters such as sediment-related disasters, floods, tsunamis, storm surges, and volcanic eruptions. Hazard maps produced by municipal governments usually contain the following information in addition to the areas at risk of disasters: sketches of evacuation routes and shelters, evaluation of disaster possibility and frequency, a warning and evacuation system, and disaster-related basic information.
High School With Fiscal Autonomy (Implementing Unit)
is a public high school which meets the requirements set forth under DepED Order No. 60, s. 2011 entitled “Implementing Guidelines on the Direct Release of Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) Allocations of Schools to the Respective Implementing Units” and Item 3.a of DepED Order No. 77, s. 2010 entitled “Guidelines on the Allocation/Deployment of New Teaching, Teaching-Related and Non-Teaching Positions for FY 2010,” thus, receiving its allotment directly from the DBM.
High School Without Fiscal Autonomy (Non-Implementing Unit)
is a public secondary school which does not meet the requirements set forth under DepED Order No. 60, s. 2011 and DepED Order No. 77, s. 2010, and as such, does not receive its allotment directly from the DBM.
High-risk or Disaster-prone Areas
refer to hazard and no-build-zones as defined under Joint-DENR-DILG-DND-DPWH-DOST Memorandum Circular No. 2014-01. Hazard zones are the areas identified in the hazard maps as susceptible to natural hazards, such as flooding, rain-induced landslide, storm surges, earthquakes, volcanic activities, and ground subsidence. Nobuild-zones are the easement areas defined by the Water Code, Civil Code and the Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines.
Higher Education Institution (HEI)
refers to an educational institution, private or public, undertaking operations of higher education program/s with an organized group/s of students pursuing defined studies in higher education, receiving instructions from teachers, usually located in a building or group/s of buildings in a particular site specifically intended for educational purposes.
Higher Order Thinking Skills
Complex thinking processes which include logical and critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis thinking that enable individuals to reflect, solve problems and create products/solutions.
Highest Accountable Official
refers to the Executive Committee (ExeCom) member in-charge of the achievement of a specific PBB target or implementation of and compliance with a specific PBB requirement.
Highest Reporting Official
refers to the ExeCom member in-charge of reporting and submission of the required reports to the AO25 Secretariat and/or validating agencies.
Highly Specialized Position
refers to a position with highly specialized and unique duties requiring specialized education, training, or skills which may not be acquired through formal education, training programs, or experience gained from service-wide positions.
Home-based learning
refers to the delivery of basic education, whether formal, non-formal, or informal, under the lead and supervision of a teacher but undertaken in the homes of learners through the various learning delivery modalities in DO 12, s. 2020, except homeschooling.
Homeschooling
refers to the provision of learners with access to formal education while staying in an out-of-school environment, under the lead and supervision of authorized parents, guardians or tutors who take the place of the teachers as learning facilitators. While learners are expected to meet the learning standards of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum, the learning facilitators are given flexibility in learning delivery, scheduling, assessment and curation of learning resources. The program allows parents and guardians to maximize their involvement in their children’s education as a matter of parenting philosophy.
Homeschooling
This is an ADM that aims to provide learners with quality basic education that is facilitated by qualified parents, guardians, or tutors who have undergone relevant training in a home-based environment. It allows families to educate according to their personal faith, philosophy, and values, and to adjust learning schedules around family schedules and circumstances. However, there remain several issues in its implementation, including the supervision of licensed teachers and alignments with the curriculum. Thus, this modality will be the subject of a later DepEd issuance before its expansion.
Human Recovery Needs Assessment
An assessment of disaster consequence on human development in terms of livelihood, social capital, environmental assets, institutions, governance, coping and adaptive strategies.
Human Resource Development
is a range of activities that cover continuing professional development, organization and career development aimed at improving individual and organizational productivity. It is a long-term process that includes regular opportunities and experiences planned systematically to promote growth and development in the profession (DO No. 21, s. 2018).
Human Resource Development
is a range of activities that cover continuing professional development, organization and career development aimed at improving individual and organizational productivity. It is a long-term process that includes regular opportunities and experiences planned systematically to promote growth and development in the profession.
Human Resource Training and Development
unified system that provides for the continuing quality professional development for in-service education personnel at all levels of the educational system
Humanitarian Access
This refers to the right of vulnerable populations to receive international protection and assistance from an impartial humanitarian relief operation to complement efforts of national authorities. Such action is subject to the consent of the State parties concerned and does not prescribe coercive measures in the event of refusal, however unwarranted.
Humanitarian Assistance
This refers to aid that seeks to save lives and alleviate suffering of a crisis affected population. Humanitarian assistance must be provided in accordance with the basic humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, independence and neutrality. Assistance may be divided into three (3) categories: direct assistance, indirect assistance and infrastructure support, which have diminishing degrees of contact with the affected population.
I
IP Education (IPEd) Program
refers to the “program that supports education initiatives undertaken through formal, non-formal, and informal modalities with emphasis on any of, but not limited to, the key areas of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices and community history, indigenous languages, Indigenous Learning System (ILS) and community life cycle-based curriculum and assessment, educational goals, aspirations and competencies specific to the Indigenous Cultural Community (ICC), engagement of elders and other community members in the teaching-learning process, assessment, and management of the initiative, recognition and continuing practice of the community’s ILS, and the rights and responsibilities of ICCs” (Section 8.4, Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10533/The Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013).
ISO 9001 Standards
The international standards for QMS that an organization must follow, which are used by organizations to demonstrate their ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer (referred to as “Client” in the public sector) and regulatory requirements and to demonstrate continuous improvement.
ISO 9001:2015 Standard
The current and latest ISO 9001 standard, which, unlike its previous versions, requires the application of a risk-based thinking approach and increases the leadership requirements of an organization.
Implementing Unit
Schools capable of administering their own funds, having position items assigned to handle cashiering and bookkeeping functions whether on a permanent or temporary basis.
Implementing Units (IUs)
refers to secondary schools that maintain separate books of accounts
In-Service Education and Training (INSET)
policies and procedures designed to improve and develop teachers relative to their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills required to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.
In-Service Training (INSET)
A training workshop with a minimum of five (5) days for the asatidz to keep them updated on the current trends in the teaching and learning process. The training shall be based on the result of the Training Needs Analysis (TNA).
In-Service Training (INSET)
a learning and development activity for teachers and staff that may include seminars, workshops, conferences, exhibitions and Learning Action Cells that are designed to update their knowledge, skills and competencies that will result to considerable evidence of improved teaching-learning and instructional leadership practices which enhance learners’ performance and competency levels.
Inclusive Education
refers to a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners by moving towards the end goal of full participation, presence and achievement in learning, cultures, and communities, and eliminating, exclusion within and from education. It involves accommodation, modification, adaptation, and individualization in content, approaches, structures, and strategies, with a common vision that covers all learners of the appropriate age range, and a conviction that it is the State’s responsibility to educate all children. It also focuses on achieving quality education that fosters diversity and flexibility towards full participation of all learners with disabilities.
Inclusive Learning Resource Center (ILRC)
refers to a center with improved physical infrastructure and facilities that provides a) support to teaching and learning, using appropriate, accessible, disability- and gender-sensitive instructional learning materials, tools, devices, gadgets, and equipment; b) assessment tools and instruments to evaluate developmental domains and specific areas of concern to determine appropriate services and placement decisions, and c) support from medical, health, and allied professionals for care, rehabilitation, habilitation, and development of learners with disabilities.
Inclusive education
is an approach that enjoins schools to accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, emotional, social, linguistic, or other conditions (Article 3, Salamanca Framework for Action). Schools must adopt an inclusive orientation as a means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society, and achieving education for all. Moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and, ultimately, the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.
Indicator
Concrete, observable and measurable school head behavior/ practice covered in every strand in the Philippine Professional Standards for School Heads.
Indicators
Concrete, observable and measurable teacher behaviors/practices covered in every strand in the set of professional standards for teachers.
Indigenization (Contextualization)
the process of enhancing curriculum competencies, education resources and teaching-learning processes in relation to the bio-geographical, historical, and socio-cultural contexts of the learners’ community. Indigenization may also involve the enhancement of the curriculum framework, curriculum design and learning standards of subject areas, guided by the standards and principles adhered to in the national curriculum.
Indigenous Peoples (IP) learner
a learner born of either or both parents who are IP as defined in RA 8371 or the Indigenous Peoples Republic Act of 1997.
Indigenous Peoples (IPs)
as stipulated in the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) of 1997, Section 3(h), IPs or indigenous cultural communities (ICCs) refer to “a group of people or homogenous societies identified by self ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized such territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, tradition and other distinctive cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads of colonization, non-indigenous religions and culture, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. ICCs/IPs shall likewise include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the time of inroads of non-indigenous religions and cultures, or the establishment of present state boundaries, who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains.”
Indigenous Peoples/Indigenous Cultural Community (IP/ICC)
refers to “a group of people or homogenous societies identified by selfascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived as organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized such territories, sharing common bonds of language, customs, tradition and other distinctive cultural traits, or who have, through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads of colonization, non-indigenous religions and culture, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. IP/ICC shall likewise include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, at the time of conquest or colonization, or at the time of inroads of non-indigenous religions and cultures, or the establishment of present state boundaries, who retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains” (Section 3(h), RA 8371).
Indigenous groups
People who have, under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized ancestral territories, shared common bonds of language, customs, traditions, and other unique cultural traits (RA 8371: IPRA)
Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF)
The form that shall reflect the individual commitments and performance, which shall be accomplished by individual employees.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
is a systematic, purposive, and developmental educational programming document of curricular and instructional priorities and contents designed to meet the learner’s special needs and aimed at ensuring mastery of learning for target skills and behaviors (Dizon, 1999). This document will serve as one of the references and basis to show the learner’s progress in a specific component or part of the curriculum or program and, when necessary, will take the place of the regular report card or SF 9 which is being used in all regular schools.
Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)
refers to the educational plan used for mapping out short-term to long-term outcomes from which annual goals and objectives are defined. It is designed to provide parents, learners, and schools with specific transitional services to be given to the learners upon entry to the Transition Program. The ITP includes the strengths, needs, and aspirations of the learners and should be documented and monitored to ensure success of the program.
Industry Immersion
It is designed to equip the teachers with better understanding of the demands of the industry and be able to teach in a context-oriented manner. An Industry Immersion is a need-based training program tailor-fit to the skills requirements of techvoc teachers as they relate their teaching strategies to industry workplace standards.
Informal Education
refers to diverse forms of learning that are intentional or deliberate but are not institutionalized. It is a lifelong process of learning by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights from daily experiences at home, at work, at play and from life itself towards literacy.
Informal Education (InFed) Program
is the lifelong learning process acquired outside the formal school system which compliments learning acquired in both Non-Formal Education (NFE) and Formal Basic Education (FBE). It includes personal interest, community development, livelihood and entrepreneurship skills.
Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) materials
materials or tools such as brochures, posters and training kits, to promote positive behavior and avoid drug use.
Innovative Programs
any project that promotes access to education such as programs for street children, children in conflict areas, children with special needs, children in IP communities, and other out-of-school youth (expansion of the Open High School program).
Inspection Order
refers to the written instruction to the Inspectorate Team by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Procurement and Administration (OASPA) through the Contract Management Division (CMD) in the CO, or by the Regional Director, Schools Division Superintendent or Head of the Administrative Division/Section, as may be authorized, or by the School Head or Principal, authorizing and directing them to conduct inspection and acceptance of goods. The inspection order states the particulars of the inspection such as a brief description of the project, the goods for inspection, the date, time and venue of inspection, and special instructions, if any.
Instructional Rooms
rooms that include academic classrooms, laboratories, and Home Economics (HE) rooms.
Integrated Multigrade Lesson Plans (IMG-LPs)
are another set of prototype lesson plans recommended for teaching a multigrade class, in which related learning competencies of different subjects are integrated using a common theme. They are written on a weekly basis. The themes were based on the government thrusts for basic education, such as climate change; peace education; health education; financial literacy; and culture and the arts.
Integrated Schools
pursuant to DepEd Order No. 40, s. 2014, an Integrated School is a school that offers complete basic education from Kindergarten to Grade 10 or Kindergarten to Grade 12, which upon the full implementation of K to 12 Law, is located in one school site and has unified instructional programs.
Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (IATF-EID)
refers to a body or group with various member-agencies of government created under Executive Order 168, s. 2014, which provides inter-sectoral collaboration to establish preparedness and ensure efficient government responses to assess, monitor, contain, control, and prevent the spread of any potential epidemic in the country. This body is headed by the Department of Health (DOH).
Inter-Agency Transferred Fund (IATF)
cash or money transferred to an Implementing Agency (IA) for the undertaking of a project by a Source Agency (SA) in which the allotment was released
Inter-ObserverAgreement Exercise
A discussion among observers to arrive at a final rating. This occurs during the post-observation process and involves the use of the Inter-Observer Agreement Form.
Interested Private and Public Entitles
may include, but are not limited to, privale sector publishers, private and public institutions such as universities, colleges, schools, professional organizations and associations, government and non-government agencies, and individuals who developed self- learning modules (SLMs).
Internal Control
An integral process that is affected by an agency’s management and personnel, and is designed to address risk and provide reasonable assurance that in pursuit of the agency’s mission, the general objectives are being achieved.
Internal Quality Audit (IQA)
An audit of the QMS against ISO 9001 standards conducted by the DepEd IQA team as part of the process of ISO Certification.
Internal Quality Audit Team (IQAT)
An audit team composed of employees from different offices in DepEd who are trained to perform audit based on ISO 19011 or the Guidelines for Auditing Management System.
Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA)
account created under PD 144, as amended, representing the portion of total national government revenues which accrue to the local governments

includes the local government share in the specific tax on oil products authorized by PD 436, as amended
International Stakeholders
shall refer to international government organizations, international non-government organizations, including Association of Southeast Asian Nations [ASEAN], Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation [APEC], United Nations [UN], Southeast Asian Minister of Education Organization [SEAMEO].
Isolation
the separation of ill or infected persons from others to prevent the spread of infection or contamination
Itinerary of Travel
document indicating places to travel
J
Job Order
refers to piece of work “pakyaw” or intermittent or emergency jobs such as clearing of debris in the roads, canals, waterways, etc. after natural/man-made disasters/occurrences or other manual/trades and craft services such as carpentry, plumbing, electrical, and the like. These jobs are for short duration and for a specific piece of work.
Job-embedded learning
refers to the learning that is grounded in the daily activity of teachers, and is characterized as learning by doing to encourage teacher engagement and reflection on teaching practice.
Joint Delivery Voucher Program for Senior High School Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Specializations (JDVP-TVL)
The JDVP-TVL is a tuition fee assistance to Grade 12 students in DepEd public SHSs, which have been identified as having inadequate facilities, equipment, tools, and teachers relevant to the implementation of TVL specializations.

The tuition fee assistance shall be in the form of JDVP-TVL voucher given to learner-beneficiaries to enable them to cross enroll for the completion of TVL specializations in eligible private SHSs, non-DepEd public SHSs, or private TVIs (JDVP-TVL Partners).
K
Key Result Area (KRA)
is a broad category of general outputs or outcomes. It is the mandate or function of the office and/or individual employee. The KRA is the reason why an office and/or job exist. It is an area where the office and/or individual employee are expected to focus on.
Key Stage Standard
This shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate in each key stage after learning a particular learning area in relation to the core learning area standard.
Key stage
This refers to stages in the K to 12 Program reflecting distinct developmental milestones. Assessment of learning is critical at the end of each stage. These are Key stage 1 (Kindergarten to Grade 3); Key stage 2 (Grade 4 to Grade 6); Key stage 3 (Grade 7 to Grade 10); and Key stage 4 (Grades 11 and 12).
Killing and Maiming of Children
Killing includes any action that results to the death of one or more children. Maiming, on the other hand, includes any action that results to permanent or debilitating injury, defacing, scarring, and mutilation to one or more children. It should be noted that psychological injuries are not covered under this violation.
Killing of Children
may also refer to acts of all kinds in the context of armed conflict that result in the death of one or more children. Among others, they include the death of children as a result of direct targeting or as the indirect result of, among others, the use of landmines, cluster munitions, and all forms and types of improvised explosive device (IED).
Kindergarten Catch-Up Education Program (KCEP)
refers to the various educational delivery modes and interventions for children above five (5) years who are caught in difficult circumstances and/or extreme poverty that they missed schooling, attending Day Care Service, or any kind of early childhood learning opportunity.
Kindergarten Curriculum Guide (KCG)
is also known as the Standards and Competencies for Five (5) Year Old Filipino Children. It is the listing of competencies or skills in the seven (7) developmental domains for holistic development of children. The KCG is the basis in coming up with the daily activities spelled out in the Teacher’s Guide.
Kindergarten Education (KE)
is the first stage of compulsory and mandatory formal education which consists of one (1) year of preparatory education for children at least five (5) years old as prerequisite for Grade One (Section 6, IRR of RA 10533).
Kindergarten Madrasah
is a curriculum implemented in schools with Kindergarten classes integrating the ALIVE subjects.
L
LR Portal
will provide educational resources that are intended to be printed, as well as the quality assurance mechanisms to produce these items.
Laboratory/Workshop for Agricultural school
is a facility for the application of concepts and theories in agriculture through hands-on activities designed for the students. Examples are the following: greenhouse, nursery, bam, and other structures for crop and vegetable production; poultry house, pig pen and other structures for livestock production; and food processing laboratory.
Laboratory/Workshop for Arts and Trade school
is a facility for the application of concepts and theories in arts and trade through hands-on activities designed for the students. Examples are the following: Electrical Technology workshop, Food Technology laboratory, Garment workshop, Automotive Servicing workshop, Electronics laboratory, Building Construction workshop, Furniture and Cabinet Making workshop, Welding Technology workshop, Cosmetology workshop, Machining Technology workshop, Food Processing laboratory, Personal Computer (PC) Hardware Servicing workshop, and Plumbing workshop.
Laboratory/Workshop for Fisheries school
is a facility for the application of concepts and theories in fisheries (culture, capture and processing) through hands-on activities designed for the students. Examples are the following: fishpond, fish cage, fish pen, hatchery, fish processing laboratory, and fish capture practicum facility.
Language Enhancement and Pedagogy (LEaP)
Is a prerequisite prototype capacity building and induction program for the QEALIS passers and newly hired asatidz who are under COS.
Language Enhancement and Pedagogy (LEaP)
is a training prototype which serves as a capacity building and induction program for asatidz. It covers reading, writing, listening, speaking, teaching pedagogy and school immersion. It aims to build English proficiency and beginning mastery of lesson planning, teaching and assessment for the Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) teachers or asatidz entering the public school system.
Language Mapping
is the mapping of students’ LI generated through the LIS, and presented in a matrix format at the level of the school and classroom.
Lapsed NCAs
NCAs which are no longer valid or its validity has expired but remain unadjusted by the bank or the agency/entity
Large-scale assessments
measure student learning outcomes in particular learning areas or domains. These are wider and bigger in scope, and are used to measure what learners know and can do based on a standard criteria and/or expectations. Internal/national assessments are conducted by the DepEd. External/international assessments are conducted by international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The DepEd may select in which international assessments to participate.
Last Mile School
Refers to a school that is located in Geographically Isolated and Disadvantaged Areas (“GIDA” hereafter), characterized by any or all of the following circumstances: with less than four classrooms, with makeshift or nonstandard rooms, without electricity, without new construction projects in the last four years, with a travel distance of more than one hour from the town center, with difficulty in terrain, having multi-grade classes/rooms, with less than five teachers, with a student population of fewer than 100 learners and with more than 75% Indigenous People learners, as defined under Department Memorandum No. 59 s. 2019.
Lead Proponent
refers to an individual who will directly coordinate with the secretariat on administrative and financial matters of the approved research.
Learner
Learner refers to any individual, regardless of age, sex, gender, disability, ethnicity, cultures, and religion, enrolled in basic education to enhance his/her knowledge, skills, and values to improve the quality of his/her life and to develop his/her potentials (Sec. IV, 6 (d) of the Policy Framework on Inclusive Education in Basic Education).
Learner
is any individual seeking basic literacy skills and functional life skills or support services for the improvement of the quality of one’s life.
Learner
an individual enrolled in an educational institution offering basic education.
Learner
refers to a pupil or student in the formal system, or in the Alternative Learning System (ALS).
Learner
An individual who attends classes in any level of the basic education system, under the supervision and tutelage of a teacher or facilitator.
Learner Attainment Data
Evidence of learning, progress or achievement in learner performance reflected in various assessment results, portfolios, class records and report cards
Learner Enrollment and Survey Form (LESF)
a tool that will be used to register learners for the school year and gather information on household capacity to facilitate the administration of various learning modes (i.e., available devices, possible facilitators, etc).
Learner Information System (LIS)
A web-based system for registering, enrolling, tracking, and maintaining data on learners in formal and non-formal systems of basic education.
Learner Information System (LIS)
is an online system “where basic learner information is captured, stored and accessed through a secured facility to enhance tracking and decision-making on learners at various levels of DepEd management” (DepEd Order No. 33, s. 2013).
Learner Information System (LIS)
is currently used to issue the unique Learner Reference Number (LRN), record the basic Learner profile, and generate school forms.

It will be expanded to cover additional information on the academic performance, health status, athletics record, and socio-economic background.

It will also be improved so that learners can just order their permanent records through the internet without needing to go back to the school where they graduated from.

Permanent records will no longer be lost during disasters that may affect the school.
Learner Reference Number (LRN)
A unique twelve-digit identification number generated from the LIS and assigned to a learner to keep track of his/her progress through the basic education cycle, regardless of transfer to another school or learning center in the public or private sector and promotion/moving up from the elementary to the secondary level.
Learner interests
Pertain to student’s personal preferences, likes or dislikes, which must be considered in the teachinglearning process. The first step to differentiate for interests is to find out what learners care about and like to do.
Learner needs
Refer to an observable gap between the learner’s present knowledge or competence and the curriculum standards identified as necessary for the grade level.
Learner strengths
Refer to the learner’s present knowledge or competence that helps him/her in meeting the standards identified.
Learners with Difficulty
learners who manifest difficulties in particular activities (e.g., cognitive, communication, mobility, hearing, seeing, etc.) required for daily lessons, as determined through observation and/or informal assessments, and who have not undergone a medical assessment conducted by a licensed medical specialist. The difficulties must be manifested to such extent that the learners “require modification of school practices, or special educational services to develop to maximum capacity” (Education Act of 1982).
Learners with Disabilities
refer to those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective participation in society on equal basis with others.
Learners with Disabilities (LWDs)
shall refer to those who have longterm physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on equal basis with others (Sec. 4 (o) of RA 11510).
Learners with Disabilities (LWDs)
refer to children, youth and adult learners with substantial limitations in their functions, characterized by significantly sub-average intellectual capacity and/or existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more adaptive skills areas. These learners may have any or a combination of the following: intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, mental, emotional or behavioral disorders, sensory impairments, autism, long term physical or health disabilities, deaf blindness, and multiple handicapping conditions. These conditions may be a hindrance to the learners’ full and effective participation in the society; thus, these conditions necessitate the provision of special education services and other allied services that will enable LWDs to live functional lives.
Learners with Disability
learners who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments as diagnosed by licensed professionals like Psychologists, Psychometricians, and Medical Specialists.
Learning Action Cell
is a group of teachers and other school and learning center teaching personnel who are engaged in collaborative learning sessions to solve shared challenges encountered in the school. LACs are school-based communities of practice that are positive, caring and safe spaces. (DepEd Order No. 35 s. 2016 entitled The Learning Action Cell as K to 12 Basic Education Program School-Based Continuing Professional Development Strategy for the Improving of Teaching and Learning).
Learning Action Cell (LAC)
is a group of teachers and learning center teaching personnel who are engaged in collaborative learning sessions to solve shared challenges encountered in the school. LACs are school-based communities of practice that are positive, caring and safe spaces (DO No. 35, s. 2016).
Learning Activity Sheets (LAS)
are supplementary learning resources that learners can engage in, such as individualized learning exercises that further develop the desired knowledge and skills they are acquiring from different lessons. The contents of these learning activities will enable them to explore learning possibilities and broaden their learning experiences, so learners can gain expertise in the prerequisite knowledge and skills set by the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum.
Learning Center
is a physical space to house learning resources and facilities of a learning program for out-of-school youth and adults. It is a venue for face-to-face learning activities and other learning opportunities for community development and improvement of the people’s quality of life (Republic Act No. 9155).
Learning Center
is a physical space to house learning resources and facilities of a learning program for out-of-school youth and adults. It is a venue for face-to-face learning activities and other learning opportunities for community development and improvement of the people’s quality of life (RA 9155 or the Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001)
Learning Competencies
refer to the knowledge, understanding, skills, and attitudes that students need to demonstrate in every lesson and/or learning activity.
Learning Context
The teaching/learning situation, environment and all the factors in which learners learn from instruction.
Learning Delivery Modalities
are the different approaches as a means for the learning facilitator and the learner to interact in a given L&D intervention. It could be face-to-face/in-face, digital/online, or blended mode.
Learning Delivery Modalities
The learning delivery modalities that schools can adopt may be one or a combination of the following, depending on the COVID-19 restrictions and the particular context of the learners in the school or locality.

1. Face-to-face. This refers to a learning delivery modality where the students and the teacher are both physically present in the classroom, and there are opportunities for active engagement, immediate feedback, and socio-emotional development of learners.

In areas under the Moderate and High-risk severity grading, this is not possible. However, there are learners with disabilities whose conditions require face-to-face instruction. This will be the subject of further discussion within DepEd, with partners, and with parents.

Face-to-face option may also be feasible in very low risk areas such as the geographically isolated, disadvantaged, and conflict affected areas (GIDCA) with no history of infection and with easily monitored external contacts, but with teachers and learners living in the vicinity of the school.

Any face-to-face learning delivery must have proper risk assessment and must adhere to the health protocols in place. Potential learning spaces in the community near the school may be explored to add spaces for the conduct of classes with the appropriate social distancing.

2. Distance learning. This refers to a learning delivery modality where learning takes place between the teacher and the learners who are geographically remote from each other during instruction. This modality has three types: Modular Distance Learning (MDL), Online Distance Learning (ODL), and television (TV)/Radio-Based Instruction.

Modular Distance Learning involves individualized instruction that allows learners to use SLMs in print or digital format, whichever is applicable in the context of the learner, and other learning resources like learner’s materials, textbooks, activity sheets, study guides, and other study materials. Learners access electronic copies of learning materials on a personal computer (PC), tablet PC, or smartphone. CDs, DVDs, USB storage, and computer-based applications can all be used to deliver e-learning materials, including offline ebooks. The teacher takes the responsibility of monitoring the progress of the learners. The learners may ask assistance from the teacher via email, telephone, text message/instant messaging, etc. Where possible, the teacher shall do home visits to learners needing remediation or assistance. Any member of the family or other stakeholders in the community need to serve as para-teachers.

Online Distance Learning features the teacher as facilitator, engaging learners’ active participation through the use of various technologies accessed through the internet while they are geographically remote from each other during instruction. The internet is used to facilitate learner-teacher and peer-to-peer communication. Online learning allows live synchronous instruction. It requires participants to have a good and stable internet connection. It is more interactive than the other types of distance learning and the responses are in real-time. The learners may download materials from the internet, complete and submit assignments online, and attend webinars and virtual classes. This is practiced effectively by using a Learning Management System or related technologies. The DepEd Commons and DepEd Learning Resource (LR) Portal fall in this category.

TV/Radio-Based Instruction utilizes SLMs converted to video lessons for Television-Based Instruction and SLMs converted to radio scripts for RadioBased Instruction.

Distance learning modality is most viable for independent learners, and learners supported by periodic supervision of parents or guardians.

The challenge will be in dealing with learners not capable of independent learning. This is the subject of further discussion within DepEd, and with partners and parents.

3. Blended Learning. This refers to a learning delivery that combines face-to-face with any or a mix of online distance learning, modular distance learning, and TV/Radio-based Instruction. Blended learning will enable the schools to limit face-to-face learning, ensure social distancing, and decrease the volume of people outside the home at any given time.

Critical for implementation will be the production of the needed teacher’s and learner’s learning materials (DepEd LR Portal and DepEd Commons will be maximized), as well as the support of media institutions like TV and radio stations.

4. Homeschooling. This is an ADM that aims to provide learners with quality basic education that is facilitated by qualified parents, guardians, or tutors who have undergone relevant training in a home-based environment. It allows families to educate according to their personal faith, philosophy, and values, and to adjust learning schedules around family schedules and circumstances. However, there remain several issues in its implementation, including the supervision of licensed teachers and alignments with the curriculum. Thus, this modality will be the subject of a later DepEd issuance before its expansion.
Learning Environment
refers to learning facilities, resources and technology, means of teaching, modes of learning, and connections to community, societal and global contexts towards the development of the learner (Sec. 6(e) of the Policy Framework on Inclusive Education in Basic Education).
Learning Focused
Instructional and assessment strategies that target meaningful learning.
Learning Institutions
refers to schools, both public and private, including those Philippine Schools based overseas and Foreign or International Schools based in the Philippines, duly accredited and I or recognized by the Department of Education authorized to offer any of the following Basic Education Program:

i. Kindergarten education – shall mean one (1) year of preparatory education for children at least five (5) years old as a pre-requisite for Grade 1.
ii. Elementary education – refers to the second stage of compulsory basic education which is composed of six (6) years.
iii. Secondary education – refers to the third stage of compulsory basic education consisting of four (4) years of junior high school education and two (2) years of senior high school education.
Learning Outcomes
Products and performance targets through which students demonstrate the knowledge, skills and attitudes they have learned.
Learning Programs
Organized and sequenced set of strategies, activities and tasks that effect learning.
Learning Resource Evaluators (LREs)
are loaming area experts, curriculum specialists, education program supervisors, master teachers, classroom teachers, and/or academicians from private and state universities, colleges, schools, and/or professional associations who are content experts and language experts who successfully met the selection criteria of DepEd. They are screened and selected nationwide by a selection and screening commit rec and trained to qualify to the pool of LREs of DepEd. The specialists from the Bureau of Curriculum Development (BCD) and Bureau of Learning Delivery (BLD) of DepEd Central Office are also tapped as LREs.
Learning Resources (LRs)
any text-based (print or non-print) or non-text based material (devices, tools, equipment, manipulative toys) aligned with the K to 12 curriculum and as primary bases or supplements to teaching and learning processes.
Learning Support Aide
refers to a person who works together, and in collaboration with, a teacher and contributes to the provision of learning opportunities that promote achievement and progression of learners.
Learning Support Aide (LSA)
refers to a person who works together in collaboration with a teacher and contributes to the provision of learning opportunities that promote achievement and progression of learners.
Learning Tools and Equipment (LTE)
are non-text-based learning resources such as science and mathematics equipment and TVL tools and equipment.
Learning Tools and Equipment (LTE)
are non text-based learning resources such as science and mathematics equipment and TVL tools and equipment
Learning and Development (L&D) Intervention
is an activity or set of activities undertaken by the Department to address a competency gap affecting an individual or organizational performance. An intervention is usually identified as part of the Annual L&D Plan but may also be undertaken to immediately address an emerging need.
Learning and Development System
refers to the processes and mechanisms through which professional development activities and programs shall be developed, managed, quality-assured, monitored, and evaluated. The L and D System encompasses five (5) subsystems, namely:

1. Learning and Development Needs Assessment
2. Learning and Development Planning
3. Program Designing and Resource Package Development
4. Program Delivery
Quality Assurance, Monitoring and Evaluation, and Technical Assistance
Learning experiences
Refer to any interaction, course, program, or other involvement in which learning takes place, whether it occurs in traditional academic settings (schools, classrooms) or nontraditional settings (outside-of-school locations, outdoor environments), or whether it includes traditional educational interactions (students learning from teachers and professors) or nontraditional interactions (students learning through games and interactive software applications).
Learning goals
Reflect long-term objectives to learn new skills, master new tasks, or understand new things. They refer to specific knowledge, skills, attitudes and values stated as curriculum competencies that children must develop as a result of the teaching-learning process.
Learning modules, supplementary materials
these are learning resources being used by the learning facilitators and leaners in the conduct of learning intervention.
Learning outcome
is the totality of information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values, skills, competencies, or behaviors an individual is expected to master upon successful completion of an educational program (UIS, 2011). The outcome of these educational processes is usually measured through standardized tests. The test results can be used as proxy indicators to measure the effectiveness of the educational system.
Learning/Teaching Contexts
Teaching/learning situations and all the circumstances in which learners learn from instruction.
Lesson Plan
The teacher’s detailed description of the steps a teacher will take to teach a particular topic. This includes the following: Detailed Lesson Plan (DLP), Weeky Lesson Log (for Alternative Learning System classes) and Indigenized Lesson Plan (for Indigenous Peoples Education classes).
Level Description
Description of practice for each level. The description explains the features of practice expected of teachers in the classroom.
Level of Governance
is a term used to describe the way authority is spread vertically between DepEd. The highest level is the Central Office (policy makers) headed by the Secretary herself followed by Regional Offices (ROs) headed by a Director, Schools Division Offices (SDOs) headed by a Division Superintendent and the School as the major implementers of policies and Programs/Projects/Activities (P/P/As).
Leveled Readers
are books appropriate to the age and grade level of learners which are used to build vocabulary, develop decoding strategies and word recognition skills, learn the structure of narrative or expository texts, develop fluency, and foster love for reading.
Liabilities
obligations of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits or service potential
Library Hub
is a reservoir of supplementary learning resources managed by the schools division office intended to promote and develop the love and habit of reading among the learners.
Life Skills
abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life such as decision-making, goal-setting, and communication skills (World Health Organization).
List of Due and Demandable Accounts Payable-Advice to Debit Account (LDDAP-ADA)
accountable form integrating the Advice to Debit Account (ADA) with the LDDAP, which is a list reflecting the names of creditors/payees to be paid by the NGA/OU and the corresponding amounts of the unpaid claims
List of Due and Demandable Accounts Payable-Advice to Debit Accounts (LDDAP-ADA)
is an accountable form to be used by National Government Agencies, DepEd in particular, in the implementation of the Modified Direct Payment Scheme.
Loan Amortization
refers to a scheduled periodic payment that is applied to both loan principal and/or interest.
Local Procurement
is the acquisition of TVL tools and equipment by the respective Bids and Awards Committee (BAC) of the recipient TVL-SHSs that are Implementing Units (IUs) and by the Schools Division Offices’ BAC for the recipient TVL-SHS non-IUs, through the conduct of appropriate procurement method, utilizing part of the FY 2018 funds downloaded by DepEd Central Office.
Local Stakeholders Convergence (LSC)
shall refer to convergence activities among stakeholders which help the schools to network and learn from other stakeholders in terms of establishing partnerships, program implementation, and other practices.
Local concerns/issues
challenges in the implementation of policies, programs, and projects within the purview of the Regional and Division Offices.
Local curriculum
Educational curriculum content that is informed by and responsive to the “cultural and socioeconomic realities” (UNESCO, 2012; 31) of local populations in order to engage students in the learning process.
Localization (Contextualization)
the process of relating learning content as specified in the curriculum to local information and materials in the learners’ community.
Locally-Funded Projects (LFP)
projects financed out of revenue collections and domestic borrowings
Logistics Services
refers to all services carried out by a designated third-party logistics provider relating to the handling and distribution of goods, including but not limited to collection, hauling, tagging, pick-up, loading, unloading, storage or warehousing, stock management and delivery to the final destination (i.e., recipient schools).
Losses
the value of unavoidable reduction of revenue due to foregone income, decreased production, higher cost of production, and unexpected increase of expenses as consequence of the disaster.
M
MLESF Summary Matrix Form
A tabulation template for the selected MLESF data elements that will be used as reference in encoding/updating enrollment quick count in LIS for the period August 16 to September 13, 2021.
MOOE (Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses)
expenses that are not either Personnel Services or Capital Outlay that are necessary to support and maintain the operations of government agencies.

normally included in this category are traveling expenses, supplies and materials, utility expenses, communication expenses, professional services, general services, repairs and maintenance, taxes and licenses, advertising expenses, representation expenses, rent/lease expenses, printing and publication expenses, membership dues and contributions, donations, subscription expenses, etc.
Madaris
Plural form of the Arabic word madrasah which means school.
Madaris
is the plural form of the Arabic word “madrasah” which means school.
Madrasah Education Program
is a comprehensive program in public and private schools that aims to provide appropriate and relevant educational opportunities within the context of Muslim culture, customs, traditions, and interests through the integration of the Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) in the basic education curriculum.
Maiming of Children
may also refer to acts of all kinds in the context of armed conflict that result in serious or permanent or disabling injury, scarring or defacing, or mutilation of one or more children. It shall cover intentional maiming of children where they are directly targeted, and casual maiming of children as the indirect result of, among others, the use of landmines, cluster munitions, and all forms and types of IED.
Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE)
refers to an expenditure category/expense class for support to the operations of schools such as expenses for supplies and materials; transportation and travel; utilities (water, power, etc.) and repairs, etc.
Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) or Semi-Expendable Property
are tangible items below the capitalization threshold of PhP15,000.00.
Major Final Output (MFO)
is a good or service that an organization, unit and/or individual personnel is mandated to deliver to internal and external clients through the achievement of specific objectives under the key result areas.
Major Final Outputs (MFO)
goods and services that a department or agency are mandated to deliver to external clients through the implementation of programs, activities and projects.
Major Programs and Projects
refers to a work or package of works expected to be delivered by DepEd in order to achieve its desired organizational outcome. Under the Program Expenditure Classification Program (PREXC), DepEd has sub-programs and projects under the five major programs in the Operations budget structure such as Basic Education Inputs Program, Inclusive Education Program, Support to Schools and Learners Program, Education Policy Development Program and Education Human Resource Program.
Major damaged classrooms
damaged academic classrooms needing major repair and cannot be repaired by school.
Management
refers to the leadership, functional guidance, control, and oversight of an organizational unit’s people, resource, and/or policy, and the exercise of planning, organizing, directing, and coordinating functions.
Management
refers to the leadership, functional guidance, control, and oversight of an organizational unit’s people, resource, and/or policy, and the exercise of planning, organizing, directing, and coordinating functions.
Management Review
A meeting conducted by the top management for evaluating the performance and effectiveness of the QMS, wherein audit results, identified targets, and other QMS-related matters are discussed to ensure that the QMS remains suitable, adequate, and effective
Management Service Area
refers to where the meeting of stakeholders, partners, medical and allied medical specialists and other sectors supporting the learners with disabilities shall happen.
Marginalized Learners
means those not served and reached by the formal education system, regardless of age, gender, economic status, ethnicity, religion, etc.
Material omissions or misstatements of items
Materiality depends on the nature or size of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances.

nature or size of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.
Means of Verification
refer to the documents that serve as proof of evidence to verify the attainment of specific qualifications, criteria, or component of evaluative assessment.
Medical and Nursing Services
provision of various health services such as health appraisal, treatment, consultation, referral, health counseling among others, to promote, protect and maintain the health status of learners and school personnel.
Medium of Teaching and Learning (MOTL)
refers to the Language of Instruction (LOI) or Medium of Instruction (MOI) where Mother Tongue of the learners shall be the primary language used in teaching and learning in Kindergarten.
Medium-Term Expenditure Framework
planning-budgeting framework of the government which provides a medium term – three year perspective to decision making process during budget
Medium-term Information Technology Harmonization Initiative (MITHI)
affirmation of the government’s effort to end the existence of differing systems and culture of turf wars through institutionalizing sharing and teamwork resulting to a government that is responsive to the needs of its citizens.
Memorandum of Agreement
is a legally binding document, which spells out the specific terms and conditions between and among parties entering into a partnership to implement a program, project, or any other similar undertaking. It can be entered into at the central, regional, division, or school level. The scope and limitations of the Memorandum of Agreement shall not be contrary to laws, public customs, and moral compasses.
Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS)
used to describe a range of activities that aims to protect/promote psychosocial well-being of individuals and communities in their affected environment and/or prevent or treat mental disorder
Mentoring Program
is a school and division program executed by the school heads, master teachers, and education supervisors to help newlyhired teachers.
Merging of Schools
is the process of joining or combining of two (2) or more existing schools of the same level adjacent to each other into one (1) school.
Merit
refers to the necessary qualifications and competencies to perform the duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled.
Mid-year Review
The Portfolio assessment process usually conducted in November to identify the areas that a teacher needs to improve in preparation for the year-end evaluation.
Minimum Health Standards
refers to guidelines set by the DOH, as well
as sector-relevant guidelines issued by government agencies to aid all sectors in all settings to implement non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), which refer to public health measures that do not involve vaccines, medications or other pharmaceutical interventions, which individuals and communities can carry in order to reduce transmission rates, contact rates, and the duration of the infectiousness of individuals in the population to mitigate COVID-19.
Minimum Public Health Standards
guidelines set by the Department of Health (DOH), as well as, relevant guidelines issued by government agencies to aid all sectors in all settings to implement interventions (NPI) which refer to public health measures that do not involve vaccines, medications or other pharmaceutical interventions, that individuals and communities can carry in order to reduce transmission rates, contact rates, and the duration of infectiousness of individuals in the population to mitigate COVID-19.
Minor damaged classrooms
damaged academic classrooms needing minor repair that can all be repaired by school.
Modifications
may be used to describe changes in the curriculum. Modifications are made “for learners with disabilities who are unable to comprehend all of the content an instructor is teaching” (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology, 2021, par. 2).
Modified Direct Payment Scheme (MDPS)
refers to the direct payment made to creditor’s account with GSBs or other Banks performed by GSBs through MDS upon receipt from the Schools Division Office (SDO) of the LDDAP-ADA.
Modified Disbursement Scheme (MDS)
refers to a disbursement system implemented to facilitate effective management of the national government’s cash resources, whereby national government agencies/GOCCs settle their payables through issuance of checks or through direct crediting to bank accounts, chargeable against the account of the BTr being maintained with the GSBs.
Modified Disbursement System
a procedure whereby disbursements by National Government (NG) agencies chargeable against the account of the Treasurer of the Philippines are effected through Government Servicing Banks (GSBs).
Modified Disbursement System Check
check issued by government agencies chargeable against the account of the Treasurer of the Philippines, which are maintained with different MDS AGDBs. MDS checks are covered by NCA
Modified Learner Enrollment and Survey Form (MLESF)
a tool that will be used to register learners for the school year and gather information on household capacity to facilitate the administration of various learning modalities (i.e., available devices, possible facilitators, etc.).
Modular Distance Learning
involves individualized instruction that allows learners to use SLMs in print or digital format, whichever is applicable in the context of the learner, and other learning resources like learner’s materials, textbooks, activity sheets, study guides, and other study materials.
Modular Distance Learning
involves individualized instruction that allows learners to use SLMs in print or digital format, whichever is applicable in the context of the learner, and other learning resources like learner’s materials, textbooks, activity sheets, study guides, and other study materials. Learners access electronic copies of learning materials on a personal computer (PC), tablet PC, or smartphone. CDs, DVDs, USB storage, and computer-based applications can all be used to deliver e-learning materials, including offline ebooks. The teacher takes the responsibility of monitoring the progress of the learners. The learners may ask assistance from the teacher via email, telephone, text message/instant messaging, etc. Where possible, the teacher shall do home visits to learners needing remediation or assistance. Any member of the family or other stakeholders in the community need to serve as para-teachers.
Monitoring Applications
can be used by DepEd to launch quick surveys and program tracking systems that are cellphone-based.
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
is a systematic process of gathering, processing, analyzing, interpreting, and storing data and information thereby setting into motion a series of managerial actions for the purpose of ascertaining the realization of set objectives.
Monthly Cash Program form (MCP)
the estimated monthly disbursement requirements of the Operating Units (OUs) of departments/agencies.
Monthly Disbursement Program (MDP)
refers to the estimated monthly disbursement requirements of the operating units (OUs) of DepEd.
Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELCs)
re competencies necessary to develop a learner’s practical and lifelong skills for learning amidst a crisis (e.g., pandemic, epidemic, etc, and to eventually attain a successful life (DO 18, s, 2020).
Most-at-risk Population (MARP)
population groups who have a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection, such as individuals who are aged 60 and above, pregnant, or have underlying conditions or comorbidity at risk of COVID-19 exacerbation.
Mother Tongue
refers to the “language or languages first learned by a child, which he or she identifies with, is identified as a native language user of by others, which he or she knows best, or uses most.” (Section 4(d), Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 10533).
Mother Tongue
refers to the Mother Language or First Language (LI) as defined in the Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 10533. It refers to the “language or languages first learned by a child, which he or she identifies with, is identified as a native language user of by others, which he or she knows best, or uses habitually” (Section 4(d), Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 10533).
Mother campus of learning institution (Mother Campus)
refers to the main campus or headquarters of the learning institution. In determining the main campus of an institution, the DepEd shall consider the following information: (1) where the institution is granted permit; (2) the site, campus or community where the school head or the office of the institution’s governing body is located; and (3) where the institution conducts most of its instructional activities.
Mother or Main School
is a school which maintains full administrative management and instructional supervision and control over one or more school annex(es).
Mother tongue
The native language or the first language the learner learns as a child.
Moved in
learners coming from other schools who enrolled in the school in the middle of the school year.
Moved out
learners who were previously enrolled in the school but enrolled in other schools the middle of the school year.
Multi-Grade (MG) Teacher
refers to a public school teacher handling a combined class of two or more grade levels.
Multi-disciplinary Team
refers to a team composed of professionals who support the learner’s overall health and well-being. They participate in developing, implementing, and reviewing an IEP using multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary, or other effective approaches. Each member delivers specific services, including but not limited to the educational assessment and diagnosis of learners with disabilities. These specialists can either be part of the ILRC personnel or come from the health center, division office or central school/s which have medical, health, and allied specialists like psychologists, doctors, etc.
Multi-sectoral Local Alliance
refers to the consortium composed of government and non-government agencies/organizations and other stakeholders that expressed commitment to achieve the goals of the Program. There will be a national multi-sectoral alliance led by DepEd and NYC. There will also be provincial and city multi-sectoral alliances that will support the Program on the ground.
Multigrade Daily Lesson Plans (MG-DLPs)
are the ready-made prototype detailed daily lesson plans that feature child-centered learning activities and performance-based assessment strategies. They are expected to promote effective and meaningful student learning experience in a multigrade environment. They are specifically designed for the different grade combinations in different learning areas.
Multigrade School
refers to a school the . comprises a cluster of classrooms, in which some classes are Multigrade because of low enrollment and some are monograde.
Multigrade School
is a school that has at least two (2) grade levels combined in one (1) class either as a pedadogical strategy or due to enrolment.
Multiple Enrolment
is a data issue where one learner is enrolled in more than one school as of the cut-off date for enrolment.
Multiple Learner Reference Numbers (LRN)
is a data issue where multiple learner reference numbers (LRN) have the same first name, middle name, last name, date of birth and gender, resulting in one learner having more than one LRN.
N
NEAP Authorization
formal NEAP evaluation of non-Deped entities applying to become a provider of recognized professional development programs and/or courses for teachers and school leaders.
NEAP Authorized Learning Service Providers
non-DepEd providers that have been awarded formal, fixed-term Authorization by NEAP to provide professional development to teachers and/or school leaders within DepEd.
NEAP-Recognized Professional Development Programs and Courses
are programs and courses offered by DSPs and LSPs that have undergone the quality assurance and recognition process intended to uphold the learning and development standards in the development and delivery of professional development programs and courses provided to DepEd teachers and school leaders through an evaluation mechanism under DepEd Order No. 001, s. 2020.
National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE)
an aptitude test geared towards providing information through test results for self-assessment, career awareness, and career guidance of Grade 9 learners of the K to 12 Program.
National Certificate
It is a certification issued by TESDA to individuals who have been assessed to have achieved all the required competencies for a qualification with promulgated Training Regulations.
National Competency-Based Teachers Standards (NCBTS 2017)
refers to a set of standards that define teacher quality in the Philippines. It makes explicit what teachers should know, be able to do, and value to achieve competence, improve student learning outcomes, and eventually quality education.
National Drug EducationProgram (NDEP)
a comprehensive educational program which provides for a holistic approach to the problem of drug abuse. It is designed to enable all sectors to work collaboratively with the school system as the core, thereby, unifying all sectoral endeavors.
National Expenditure Program (NEP)
Total level of expenditure in a national economy, equivalent to its total level of output and total level of income
National Government Agencies (NGAs)
refers to the various units of the Government, including a Department, bureau, office and instrumentality
National Guidelines on Internal Control Systems (NGICS)
an initiative taken by the national government to affirm its commitment to the citizenry towards accountability, effective operations, prudence in finances, and quality service

unifies in one document existing Philippine laws, rules, and regulations on internal controls to serve as a benchmark towards designing, installing, implementing, and monitoring internal controls in the public service
National Literacy Awards (NLA)
is a biennial nationwide event that aims to honor and recognize outstanding government and nongovernment organizations for their dedication, commitment, and contribution to the universalization of literacy in their respective communities. The NLA has become LCC’s major activity that serves as its primary advocacy.
National Literacy Conference (NLC)
is an annual event conducted by the LCC that generally aims to provide venue for sharing experiences in implementing literacy programs and projects for the development of the community.
National Quality Management System (NQMS)
A system wherein the QMS of DepEd offices (NQMS) and schools are established, implemented, and aligned in accordance with standards in these guidelines aimed at integrating DepEd’s internal processes within and across governance levels to ensure consistency in the delivery of quality services to achieve client satisfaction.
National curriculum
Subjects or topics taught in schools as prescribed by the Department of Education.
Neo-Literate Learners
refer to learners with minimal exposure to literacy in their first language. They often lack of confidence in their literacy skills.
NetAssets/Equity
residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities
New General Appropriations
annual authorizations for incurring obligations during a specified budget year, as listed in the GAA
New Government Accounting System (NGAS)
basic policies and procedures in government accounting

the new coding system; the accounting systems, books, registries, records, forms, reports, and financial statements; and illustrative accounting entries to be adopted by all national government
Newlyhired teacher
is a teacher with 0-3 years experience in the public school system and further classified as beginning or experienced teachers.
Next-in-Rank Position
refers to a position which, by reason of the hierarchical arrangement of positions in the agency, is determined to be in the nearest degree of relationship to a higher position as contained in the agency’s System of Ranking Positions (SRP).
Nominal Interest Rate (NIR)
The yearly cost of borrowing over the term of a loan. Also known as “annual percentage rate.”
Non School-Based Personnel
include the teaching, school administration, related teaching, and non-teaching personnel assigned and/or detailed in DepEd offices, from central to SDOs performing functions that are directly related to the teaching and learning process.
Non-Career Service
positions expressly declared by law to be in the non-career service, or those whose entrance in the service is characterized by: (1) entrance on bases other than those of the usual tests of merit and fitness utilized for the career service; and (2) tenure which is limited to a period specified by law, or which is coterminous with that of the appointing authority or subject to his pleasure, or which is limited to the duration of a particular project for which purpose employment was made.
Non-Cash Availment Authority
authority granted by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) to government agencies to account for the cash equivalent of loan proceeds availed of through supplier’s credit/constructive cash.
Non-DepEd Senior High School (Non-DepEd SHS)
refers to an educational provider not directly operated by DepEd but granted by DepEd with a permit or government recognition to operate SHS. This includes private high schools, private colleges and universities; state universities or colleges (SUCs); local universities or colleges (LUCs); and technical and vocational institutions offering SHS.
Non-Government Organization (NGO)
any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level

private sector, voluntary (and usually non-profit and nonsectarian) organization that contributes to, or participates in, cooperation projects, education, training or other humanitarian, progressive, or watchdog activities
Non-Implementing Unit (Non-IU) School or “School”
is a public elementary or secondary school which does not meet the requirements set forth under DepEd Order No. 60, s. 2011 and DepEd Order No. 77, s. 2010, and, as such, does not receive its allotment directly from the DBM.
Non-Implementing Units (Non-IUs)
public elementary and secondary schools without separate books of accounts that are under the direct supervision of the Division Offices
Non-Instructional Rooms
rooms that include offices, multipurpose covered courts, canteens, etc.
Non-Literate Learners
refer to learners with little or no exposure to literacy in their first or second language.
Non-Punitive Discipline
positive discipline or discipline without punishment.
Non-Teaching Personnel
are categorized as “allied services personnel such as accountants, planning officer, human resource management officers (HRMOs), records officers, cashiers, budget officers, engineers, architects, dentists, school physicians, nutritionists, nurses, legal officers, etc, and other support personnel”.
Non-Teaching Position
refers to a position whose primary duties and responsibilities contribute to the delivery of basic education services and achievement of agency outcomes, but do not involve nor directly support the actual conduct of teaching or delivery of instruction.
Non-government Servicing Banks (Non-GSBs) are private
are private financial institutions that accept government deposits from government agencies.
Non-verbal communication strategies
Communication that does not involve the use of words, e.g., facial expressions, gestures, and tone of voice.
Non-violent discipline
A form of discipline that avoids the use of punishment such as spanking, verbal abuse and humiliation (see Positive discipline)
Nonformal Education (NFE)
refers to any organized and systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal education system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population.
Normal Teaching Load
shall refer to six (6) hours of actual classroom teaching a day.
Notes to Financial Statements
contain information in addition to that presented in the Statement of Financial Position, Statement of Financial Performance, Statement of Changes in Net Assets/Equity, and Statement of Cash Flows

provide narrative descriptions or disaggregation of items disclosed in those statements and information about items that do not qualify for recognition in those statements.
Notice of Cash Allocation
refers to the cash authority issued by the DBM to DepEd OUs, through the authorized MDS-GSBs, to cover their cash requirements.
Notice of Cash Allocation
cash authority issued by the DBM to central, regional and provincial offices and operating units through the authorized government servicing banks of the Modified Disbursement Scheme (MDS), to cover the cash requirements of the agencies

issued by DBM on a monthly/quarterly/bi-annual/annually basis

specifies the maximum amount of withdrawal that an agency can make from a government bank for the period indicated

follows the “Common Fund” concept where agencies are given a maximum flexibility in the use of their cash allocations provided that the authorized allotment for a specific purpose is not exceeded
Notice of Organization, Staffing and Classification Action (NOSCA)
letter of the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) authorizing the creation and classification of regular plantilla positions including non-itemized positions such as casual or contractual positions

form of staffing modification and/or position classification action which may be applied only when there has been a substantial change in the regular duties and responsibilities of the incumbent of the position and which may result in a change in any or all of the position attributes: position title, level and salary grade

reclassification action takes effect on the date indicated in the NOSCA but not earlier than the date when funds for the purpose are authorized in the General Appropriations Act (GAA)

for positions under the Department of Education (DepEd) and other schools, the effectivity is not earlier than June 1 of the current year
Notice of Organization, Staffing, and Compensation Action (NOSCA)
refers to a document prepared by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) for agencies without fiscal autonomy. It reflects the specific positions in the approved staffing pattern.
Notice of Salary Adjustment (NOSA)
notice letter to a teacher/employee for any modification(s) in the salary in view of organizational, technological, professional and other developments of his(her) respective position
Notice of Transfer of Allocation (NTA)
authority of the regional and operating units to pay their operating expenses, purchases of supplies and materials, acquisition of PPE, accounts payable, and other authorized disbursements through the issue of MDS checks, ADA or other modes of disbursements.
Numeracy and literacy skills
Reading, writing, and mathematical skills needed to cope with everyday life.
O
OSY-Turned-Learners
are those who were registered in Abot-Alam and have been officially enrolled in ALS or in schools under ADM. This term may also be used to refer to those who have already been actually enrolled or registered in other programs offered under the entrepreneurship and employment tracks.
OSYs Mapped
refers to OSYs who have been mapped and registered in the Abot-Alam database either through the household targeting done by the local DepEd or barangay, or online through the Abot-Alam website.
Objectives
The specific tasks that an office and/or individual employee needs to do to achieve the major final outputs under the key result areas. (DepEd Order No. 2, s. 2015, p. 2). They also refer to a specific result that a teacher aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources.
Obligation
A commitment by a government agency arising from an act of a duly authorized official which binds the government to the immediate or eventual payment of a sum of money. The agency is authorized to incur obligations only in the performance of activities which are in pursuit of its functions and programs authorized in appropriation acts/laws within the limit of the allotment released by the DBM.
Obligation
an act of a duly authorized official which binds the government to the immediate or eventual payment of a sum of money

maybe referred to as a commitment that encompasses possible future liabilities based on current contractual agreement
Obligation Request and Status (ORS)
amount committed to be paid by the concerned agency for any lawful act made by an accountable officer for and in behalf of the government required prior to accomplishing a Disbursement Voucher (DV).
Observation
A classroom observation, usually for 50-60 minutes.
Observation Notes Form
A form used by the observer(s) during the classroom observation.
Observers
School Heads, Assistant Principals, Head Teachers, Master Teachers who conduct the classroom observation for RPMS. This is provided in DO 2,s 2015.
Occupational Therapy Service Area
refers to where learners with disabilities receive services by an Occupational Therapist through therapeutic use of everyday activities to become an independent individual as possible.
Off-Campus Activity
an authorized activity relevant to learning that takes place outside the school premises, participated by learners and supervised by teachers and/or staff and other concerned stakeholders.
Off-Campus Co-curricular Activity
authorized, voluntary, non-graded off-campus learner engagements anchored within the bounds of the standard curriculum and educational competencies organized and coordinated by authorized learner or civic organizations.
Off-Campus Extra-curricular Activity
voluntary, non-graded off-campus learner engagements not anchored on the standard curriculum and educational competencies either offered/coordinated by the school, authorized learner or civic organizations that aim to promote the holistic development of learners.
Office Performance Commitment and Review Form (OPCRF)
is the form that shall reflect the office commitments and performance, which shall be accomplished by the head of office.
Official Business
refers to official travel wherein the Transportation Expenses and Miscellaneous Expenses, and Daily Travel Expenses incurred, including salaries and other benefits, while on travel, shall be funded by DepEd or by any other government entities.
Official Time
refers to official travel wherein no government expenses shall be incurred/spent, except for the payment of salaries and other benefits of the official or employee who is on travel.
Online Distance Learning
features the teacher as facilitator, engaging learners’ active participation through the use of various technologies accessed through the internet while they are geographically remote from each other during instruction. The internet is used to facilitate learner-teacher and peer-to-peer communication. Online learning allows live synchronous instruction. It requires participants to have a good and stable internet connection. It is more interactive than the other types of distance learning and the responses are in real-time. The learners may download materials from the internet, complete and submit assignments online, and attend webinars and virtual classes. This is practiced effectively by using a Learning Management System or related technologies. The DepEd Commons and DepEd Learning Resource (LR) Portal fall in this category.
Online/remote data gathering methods
As part of the initial screening, proposals with online/remote data gathering shall be prioritized. For proposals with face-to-face data collection, the concerned Research Committee shall ensure its appropriateness with the research questions and design. Face-to-face data collection shall only be implemented if it is relevant to the research design in consideration of the risk severity of the area, and implemented upon strict observance of minimum health standards.
Open Educational Resources (OER)
refer to free and/or available educational materials that come with permission for anyone to use, modify, or share.

The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation gives the following definition of OER:

“Open Educational Resources are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions.”2

OER may include a lesson plan, a single video, a song, a completely online course or curriculum.

It may also cover software platforms needed to create, change, and share the created materials.
Open Ranking System
refers to the transparent, participative conduct of comparative assessment and evaluation, where applicants are made aware of the processes and corresponding results.
Operating Unit
a “national government agency” or a unit thereof receiving direct release of a Notice of Cash Allocation (NCA) from the DBM
Operating Unit (OU)
refers to any unit in DepEd across all governance levels that provides support and/or implement programs, projects, and activities relative to the delivery of basic education in line with the provisions of R.A. 9155.
Operational Concerns/Issues
challenges in implementing policies/directives which may be addressed by existing processes and systems, such as administrative matters (e.g. lack of resources, management style, and attitude and behavior of people).
Operationalization
refers to the process by which plans, concepts, programs, provisions (in the law) are put into operation or use, for them to be easily measured, monitored, and/ or evaluated.
Operationalization
refers to the process by which plans, concepts, programs, provisions (in the law) are put into operation or use, for them to be easily measured, monitored, and/or evaluated.
Operations Manual
Details the standard operating procedures of an office.
Organization Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF)
an approach to expenditure management that directs resources towards results or Major Final Outputs (MFO) and measures agency performance by key quality and quantity indicators.
Organizational Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF)
is a results-based management approach being mainstreamed by the Government of the Philippines (GOP) as one of the pillars of its public expenditure management (PEM) reforms. Through OPIF and other reforms, the PEM seeks to change the orientation of expenditure management from focusing on rules and processes to focusing on three key objectives or outcomes: fiscal discipline, allocative efficiency and operational efficiency.
Orientation-Training of Teachers
is an orientation activity for Multigrade teachers on the effective utilization of the LAS by the learners at home or in school, in support of enriching their foundational knowledge and skills in different learning areas.
Original Budget
initial approved budget for the budget period usually the General Appropriations Act (GAA).

may include residual appropriated amounts automatically carried over from prior years by law such as prior year commitments or possible future liabilities based on a current contractual agreement.
Orthography
refers to the conventions of spelling, and rules of written language as agreed upon by the users of that language.
Other Languages Spoken
refer to the languages spoken and understood by the learner, in addition to the Mother Tongue. These may be languages commonly used in the community or areas of residence, or languages spoken by other members of the learner’s family.
Other Partnership Building Activities
shall refer to activities and programs deemed necessary in partnership building.
Out of School Children (OSC)
persons aged 6 to 14 years who are not attending school.
Out of School Youth (OSY)
persons aged 15 to 24 years who are not attending school, have not finished any college or postsecondary course, and are not working.
Out-of-School Adults
refer to persons at least eighteen (18) years of age and above who did not complete basic education.
Out-of-School Children in Special Cases
refer to children in the official school age who are not enrolled in the elementary or secondary schools due to special cases such as economic, geographic, political, cultural or social barriers, including learners with disabilities or conditions, indigenous peoples, children in conflict with the law, learners in emergency situations, and other marginalized sectors.
Out-of-School Children in Special Cases
refer to children in the official school age who are not enrolled in the elementary or secondary schools due to special cases such as economic, geographic, political, cultural or social barriers, including learners with disabilities or conditions, indigenous peoples, children in conflict with the law, learners in emergency situations, and other marginalized sectors.
Out-of-School Children, youth and adults
encompasses children, youth and adult in one or more of the following key situations: who do not have access to a school in their community; who do not yet enroll at a school, despite the availability of a school; who drop out of the educational system; or who will never enroll at a school, despite the availability of school.
Out-of-School Youth
refers to individual identified in Section 3 of Republic Act 10742 (Sangguniang Kabataan Act of 2015) who did not complete basic education.
Out-of-School Youth (OSY)
refers to individuals aged 15 to 30 years old who:

a. Have not yet finished basic education and are currently not in school, whether employed or unemployed;
b. Have not yet finished higher education and are currently not in school, whether employed or unemployed.
Outcomes
The results achieved and/or the products developed as a result of the instructional process. In the RPMS, outcomes refer to the results of the teacher performance of their duties and responsibilities.
Outstanding Accomplishments
refer to meritorious contributions of an applicant, such as ideas, invention, or discovery, duly recognized by an authorized body; that have a direct link to the Key Result Areas (KRA) of the applicant’s current or previous position; and have led to positive results in their workplace through efficiency in operation, increased production, improved working standards, and/or savings in government spending.
Outstanding Checks
checks the agency/entity has issued and recognized but which have not been presented to the bank for payment
P
Parent-Teacher Conference
an opportunity to bring parents and teachers together in partnership to support learners’ academic success and happiness.

Teachers shall discuss with the parents the academic progress and social behavior of their children and showcase the outputs of the learners.
Part-time Senior High School Teacher
refers to a practitioner in a field related to an SHS track/strand who teaches in SHS. Part-time SHS teachers may teach in one or more schools within the division, provided that the total teaching load will not exceed one-half of the regular teaching load. Prior to application, practitioner-SHS applicants currently employed by the national government or local government unit shall seek approval from the head of his/her unit to teach in SHS with supporting evidence thereto.
Partner Institutions
are public or private institutions or organizations that are able and willing to lend their expertise and resources; and enter into agreement with any of the DepEd or Non-DepEd offices and/or schools. This enables DepEd to strengthen its capability to offer Senior High School, without monetary requirements from both.
Partnership
shall refer to the linkage or relationship established by DepEd Central Office (CO) or its ROs and SDOs or schools with other organizations to implement a work immersion program, teacher training, use of facilities, and donations that will benefit DepEd programs. Such partnerships may be formalized through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
Passbook
refers to a booklet issued by the bank to an account holder, in which the deposits, withdrawals, and other increases and decreases in the account are recorded.
Peacebuilding
refers to a range of measures targeted to reduce the risk of lapsing or relapsing into conflict by strengthening capacities at all levels for conflict management, and to lay the foundation for sustainable peace and development.
Pension and Gratuity Fund
appropriated in the General Appropriations Act (GAA) for payment of pension and gratuity benefits of government personnel.
Performance
refers to the assessment of how tasks, duties, and responsibilities are carried out or accomplished as evidenced by performance rating document or other means of verification.
Performance Data
The rating that a teacher garnered from the portfolio assessment.
Performance Indicator (PI)
is an exact quantification of objectives, which shall serve as an assessment tool that gauges whether a performance is positive or negative.
Performance Indicators
a predetermined measure of the results of an activity against a standard of performance required to achieve a set of policy objectives within a given period.
Performance Indicators
An exact quantification of objectives, which shall serve as an assessment tool that gauges whether a performance is positive or negative (DepEd Order No. 2, s. 2015).
Performance Management System (PMS)
is a mechanism to manage, monitor and measure performance.
Performance Monitoring and Coaching Form (PMCF)
is the form intended for capturing the significant incidents.
Performance Standards
describe the abilities and skills that learners are expected to demonstrate in relation to the content standards and integration of 21st-century skills. The integration of knowledge, understanding, and skills is expressed through creation, innovation, and adding value to products/ performance during independent work or in collaboration with others. Performance standards answer the following questions:

“What can learners do with what they know?”
“How well must learners do their work?”
“How well do learners use their learning or understanding in different situations?”
“How do learners apply their learning or understanding in real-life contexts?”
“What tools and measures should learners use to demonstrate what they know?”
Performance Target
a predetermined level of quantity, quality, timeliness and cost of outputs
Performance-Based Bonus (PBB)
is a top-up bonus in an amount equivalent to a percentage of the employees’ monthly basic salary to be granted to government personnel in accordance with their contribution to the accomplishment of the department’s overall targets and commitments.
Performance-Based Bonus (PBB)
timely implementation of programs and projects as a result of good planning will improve public spending and the quality of service delivery to the public
Performance-Based Incentive System (PBIS)
is a system of incentives for government employees, which was introduced in FY 2012 through EO No. 80. The PBIS consists of the PEI and PBB.
Performance-Based Incentive System (PIS)
new system of incentives for government employees

employees may receive two incentives: Performance-Based Bonus (PBB) and Productivity Enhancement Incentive (PEI)
Permanent Appointment
refers to the appointment issued to a person who meets all the qualification requirements of the position to which he/she is being appointed to, including the appropriate eligibility, in accordance with the provisions of law, rule and standards promulgated in pursuance thereof.
Permanent Official Station
the place where the office or regular place of business/work of an official employee is expected to stay most of the time as required by the nature and the duties and responsibilities of the position of such official or employee.
Permanent Position
is an appointment status issued to a person who meets all the minimum qualification requirements of the position to which he/she is being appointed, including the appropriate eligibility prescribed in accordance with the provision of law, rules and standards, promulgated in pursuance thereof. This includes all levels of position (as amended by Civil Service Memorandum Circular No. 15, s. 1999).
Permanent Resettlement Site
refers to a socialized housing area characterized by the presence of basic services, where relocates are brought for permanent resettlement. This may also be used interchangeably with permanent relocation site.
Permit to operate
refers to the temporary authority to operate granted by the DepEd to a private learning institution serving IP learners.
Personal Data Sheet (PDS)
Civil Service Commission (CSC) Form 212 indicating information about an incumbent employee/officer or a would-be applicant in government service
Personnel
are employees of the Department who are occupying permanent positions and are included in the plantilia positions of the Department.
Personnel
are employees of the Department of Education who are occupying permanent position and are included in the Plantilla of Positions of the Department
Personnel Services
provisions for the payment of salaries, wages and other compensation (e.g., merit, salary increase, cost-of-living-allowances, honoraria and commutable allowances) of permanent, temporary, contractual, and casual employees of the government.
Personnel Services Itemization and Plantilla of Personnel (PSI-POP)
itemized or detailed listing of the agency’s personal services in accordance with Republic Act No. 9498

serves as the primary data source for manpower information and as a basis for determining the Personnel Services requirement of the Department of Education (DepEd)
Personnel in Schools and Learning Centers
refer to teachers and school leaders as defined in these guidelines.
Persons Deprived of Liberty (PDL)
refer to any person deprived of personal liberty as a result of conviction for an offense. It also refers to any person arrested or detained by reason of a criminal charge, who is detained either in police custody or in jail awaiting trial or final conviction.
Petty Cash Fund (PCF)
amount granted to duly designated Petty Cash Fund Custodian for payment of authorized petty or miscellaneous expenses which cannot be conveniently paid through checks/LDDAP-ADA.
Phil-IRI
refers to the revised assessment tool composed of a set of graded passages administered to the whole class and to individual students, which was designed to determine a student’s reading level.
Phil-IRI Graded Passages
refer to informal assessment tools used to record individual student’s performance in oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension. There are four sets (Sets A, B, C and D) of passages for both Filipino and English spanning Kindergarten to Grade 7 levels which can be used for both pretesting and post-testing.
Phil-IRI Group Screening Test (GST)
is a 20-item group-administered reading comprehension test for each grade level covering Grade 3 to Grade 6 in Filipino and Grade 4 to Grade 6 in English. The objective of the GST is to identify students who need further testing.
Phil-IRI Listening Comprehension
is administered when the student is identified as a nonreader. The purpose is to find out how well a student understands the selection which will be read by the test administrator/teacher. Then the test administrator reads the multiple-choice questions and the student answers them orally.
Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test
maybe administered after the Oral Reading Test is conducted to further check the student’s comprehension skill.
Phil-IRI Testing Kit
is a set of materials composed of a) the Manual of Administration, b) Group Screening Test for English and Filipino, c) Graded Passages with Comprehension Questions for English and Filipino, and d) Phil-IRI forms.
Philippine Development Plan (PDP)
adopts a framework of inclusive growth, which is high growth that is sustained, generates mass employment, and reduces poverty

with good governance and anti-corruption as the overarching theme of each and every intervention, the Plan translates into specific goals, objectives, strategies, programs and projects all the things that are necessary to accomplish in the medium term
Philippine Education Placement Test (PEPT)
refers to nationally-administered assessment for learners in special circumstances the result of which allow learners to access or resume schooling and I or obtain certification of completion by grade level in the DepEd formal system.
Philippine Educational Placement Test
a battery of tests covering five basic subjects for validating and accrediting knowledge and skills in academic areas gained through informal and non-formal means, for re-entry into formal school, job promotion, entry to job training, employment, and self-fulfillment.
Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System (PhilGEPS)
central portal of all public procurement activities that provides both government agencies and suppliers a more open, transparent and competitive environment.
Philippine Professional Standards for School Heads (PPSSH)
the official document that articulates what constitutes school head quality. The PPSSH describes the increasing levels of knowledge, practice and professional engagement expected of school heads.
Philippine Professional Standards for Supervisors (PPSS)
the official document that articulates what constitutes supervisor quality. The PPSS describes the increasing levels of knowledge, practice and professional engagement expected of supervisors.
Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST)
the official document that articulates what constitutes teacher quality. The PPST describes the increasing levels of knowledge, practice and professional engagement expected of teachers.
Philosophy of teaching
Teachers’ views, understandings and conceptualization of teaching and learning.
Physical Therapy Service Area
refers to where learners with disability receive medical rehabilitation by a licensed Physical Therapist to improve their physical movement, reduce, or manage pain, restore function, and prevent further disability.
Physical space/physical learning environment
Any area conducive to learning which usually includes a safe classroom with appropriate devices for teaching and learning.
Placement
is the process of assigning a successful candidate to specific unit, location, or workplace.
Placement
refers to the process of assigning a successful candidate to specific unit, location, or workplace.
Planning Office
The following are the designated Planning Offices at each level:

a. Central Office – Planning and Programming Division – Office of the Planning Service
b. Regional Office – Regional Planning Unit
c. Schools Division Office – Division Planning Unit
d. School – School Planning Team
Policy-Determining Position
refers to a position which vests in the incumbent the power to formulate policies for the government or any of its agencies, subdivisions, or instrumentalities, like that of the member of the cabinet, as may be determined by the CSC.
Policy-related Concerns/Issues
issues and concerns requiring the amendment/ termination of existing policies or creation of new ones.
Pool of Inspectors
refers to the body of Inspectors in the DepEd CO from which a number of Inspectorate Teams shall be formed. The Inspectors composing the Pool are those recommended by the Implementing Units/End-User Units and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Procurement and Administration (OASPA) and officially designated by the Secretary through an Office Order.
Portfolio AssessmentProcess
A process of gauging teacher performance based on verifiable evidence organized in a portfolio. It follows three phases: preassessment, assessment and post-assessment.
Portfolio Managers
are the officials that provide direction and strategies in the management, allocation and utilization of the HRD Funds. The Undersecretary in-charge of NEAP is the HRD Fund Portfolio Manager for DepEd, while the Regional Directors and the Schools Division Superintendents shall serve as the Portfolio Managers in their respective field offices.
Portfolio Organization
It is a systematic arrangement and presentation of documents done to facilitate the rater’s assessment process.
Position Description Form (PDF)
basic document in the position classification process
Positive and Non-Violent Discipline of Children
is a way of thinking and a holistic, constructive, and pro-active approach to teaching that helps children develop appropriate thinking and behavior in the short and long-term and fosters self-discipline. It is based on the fundamental principle that children are full human beings with basic human rights. Positive discipline begins with setting the long-term goals or impact that teachers want to have on their students’ lives, and using everyday situations and challenges as opportunities to teach life-long skills and values to students.
Positive discipline
Non-violent, respectful and diplomatic means of disciplining a learner or managing learner behavior through dialogue and counseling instead of punishment (see Non-violent discipline).
Positive use of ICT
Responsible, ethical or appropriate use of ICT to achieve and reinforce learning.
Post Disaster Needs Assessment
A multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary structured approach for assessing disaster impacts and prioritizing recovery and reconstruction needs. It is undertaken by Government Agencies in collaboration with international development partners and the private sector.
Post Disaster Needs Assessment Team
is a composition of sectoral experts and trained post disaster needs assessment personnel.
Post Disaster Recovery
the restoration and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihood and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors, in accordance with the principles of “build back better. ”
Post-Assessment Phase
Portfolio assessment conducted at the end of the school year.
Post-Literate Learners
refer to learners who are able to read with comprehension, to compute and solve simple numeracy problems and ability to express ideas in writing and speaking in one’s language.
Post-Observation
The concluding phase of the classroom observation process during which observers assign individual ratings, undertake the inter-observer agreement exercise and make recommendations to improve a teacher’s performance.
Potential
refers the capacity and ability of an applicant to assume the duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled, and those higher positions that are more technical in nature.
Pre-Observation
The preliminary phase of the observation process in which teachers and observers prepare for the observation.
Pre-registered
learners who underwent the early registration process, but are not considered officially enrolled.
Present Salary
the actual basic salary of the incumbent of a Teacher I position as of the date the ERF for the automatic upgrading is filed exclusive of Personnel Economic Relief Allowance (PERA), Additional Compensation (ADCOM), Christmas Bonus and cash gift, honoraria, and any other forms of additional compensation usually paid in addition to basic salary but inclusive of transition allowance if any.
Presentation Portfolio
refers to a collection of an ALS learner’s achievements, assembled specifically for assessment. It contains formal records that document the learner’s background and experience, the learning process she/he has followed, and work samples selected by the learner to show what she/he can do. It also contains records documenting the learner’s prior learning and records documenting the learner’s progress toward achieving stated learning goals.
Preventive Drug Education
educational programs, policies, procedures, and other experiences that contribute to the achievement of broader health goals of preventing drug use (UNODC).
Primarily Confidential Position
refers to a position, determined by law or declared by the CSC, duties and responsibilities of which imply not only confidence in the aptitude of the appointees but primarily close intimacy which insures freedom of discussion, delegation and reporting without embarassment or freedom from misgivings or betrayals of personal trust.
Priority Improvement Areas (PIA)
Selected areas in school management, operations, and service delivery that need to be changed to improve the three key result areas in basic education: access, quality, and governance. A PIA is prioritized based on disparity with Division goals, strategic importance, urgency, magnitude, and feasibility.
Priority Improvement Areas (PIAs)
selected areas in school management, operations, and service delivery that need to be changed to improve the three key result areas in basic education: access, quality, and governance. A PIA is prioritized based on disparity with Division goals, strategic importance, urgency, magnitude, and feasibility.
Private Lending Institutions (PLIs)
refers to entities such as banks, cooperatives, teacher associations, non-stock savings and loan associations, insulrance companies, and other lending institutions currently and formerly accredited with the Department’s APDS Program that have loan collectibles incorporated in the payroll program.
Private Madaris
This refers to any of the following:

Traditional Madrasah that conducts classes with free tuition fees during weekends.

Traditional Madrasah that conducts classes during weekdays or weekends with tuition fee; and

Private Madrasah that conducts regular classes during weekdays and adopts the Refined Standard Madrasah Curriculum for Private Madaris.
Private Rural Farm School
refers to a rural farm school operated by a private entity, a non-government organization or a farm association. This is a school which is not funded by the government or any of its political subdivisions.
Private Sector Partner
shall refer to an individual engaged in trade or business or in the practice of his/her profession or to business organizations, like corporations, partnerships or cooperatives who/which partners with the DepEd towards providing much needed assistance and services to all public schools.
Private Stakeholders
shall refer to private corporations/companies, business enterprises, corporate foundations, cooperatives, and private individuals.
Private learning institution serving IP learners
refers to a nonprofit institution that seeks to provide or is providing educational programs that caters to the unique teaching-learning context of IP learners/communities in the formal basic education setting. For the purposes of these guidelines, the following terms shall also be used to refer to a private learning institution serving IP learners: (1) institution; (2) learning institution; and (3) institution serving IP learners.
Private madaris
refers to private schools or providers of Madrasah education. These can be categorized as: (1) traditional Madrasah that conducts ALIVE and Islamic studies, and (2) private Madrasah that conducts regular K to 12 classes and implements a Madrasah curriculum recognized by DepEd.
Probationary Period
refers to the period of actual service following the issuance of a permanent appointment wherein the appointee undergoes a thorough character investigation and assessment of capability to perform the duties of the position enumerated in the Position Description Form (PDF).
Procedure
A uniform method that outlines how to perform a process, particularly the requirements needed, how to execute the process, what needs to be accomplished, the actors, and the inputs and outputs.
Process
A set of related and interacting activities that utilizes resources to transform inputs into outputs. A process must have defined and measurable objectives, inputs, outputs, activities, and resources.
Process Holder
Office, unit, or personnel assigned by the top management to have responsibility for each process.
Process Owner/s
The concerned stakeholder/s – a person or group of people responsible for ensuring the efficiency of the process, who has the ability to make changes in the process and is/are highly involved in the project.
Productivity Enhancement Incentive (PEI)
is the across-the-board bonus equivalent to P5,000 to be given not earlier than December 15 of every year to all qualified government personnel for the purpose of improving the government employees’ productivity as stipulated under Section 6 of EO No. 201, s. 2016.
Professional Development
The continuous process of acquiring new knowledge and skills that relate to teacher’s personal development, profession, job responsibilities, or work environment.
Professional Development (PD) Credit Units
are the credit units earned by teachers and school leaders after successfully completing a NEAP-recognized professional development program or course (DO No. 20, s. 2020).
Professional Development Credit
the units of credit that NEAP assigns to professional development program or course, that is recognized within DepEd processes including for career progression and promotion.
Professional Standards
Professional practice expected of quality professionals to achieve at every stage of their career.
Professional Standards
are the professional practice articulated in the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST), the Philippine Professional Standards for School Heads (PPSSH), and the Philippine Professional Standards for Supervisors (PPSS).
Professional Standards
the professional practice articulated in the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers (PPST), the Philippine Professional Standards for School Heads (PPSSH) and the Philippine Professional Standards for Supervisors (PPSS).
Professional collaboration
Teachers working together with colleagues and other stakeholders to enrich the teaching-learning practice.
Professional learning
Something most teachers and educators do every day, as they reflect on their professional practice, work together and share ideas, and strive to improve learner outcomes.
Professional network
Refers to the connected community of educators, which may also be an online community like LinkedIn among others. This is a vibrant, ever-changing group of connections to which teachers go to share and learn. These groups reflect their values, passions, and areas of expertise.
Professional reflection
Refers to the teacher’s capacity to reflect in action (while teaching) and on action (after teaching), which is an important feature of professional development program for teachers.
Professional standards for teachers
Public document that defines teacher quality through well-defined domains, strands, and indicators that provide measures of professional learning, competent practice, and effective engagement.
Program
A homogenous group of activities necessary for the performance of a major purpose for which a government agency is established, for the basic maintenance of the agency’s administrative operations or for the provisions of staff support to the agency’s administrative operations or for the provisions of staff support to the agency’s line functions.
Program Funds
refer to the MOOE budget provided for activities directly related to program/ service delivery or achievement of performance targets, such as procurement or preparation of food for the School-Based Feeding Program, special activities/programs of units, and other similar expenses.
Program Implementation Review (PIR) and Plan Adjustment
are conducted quarterly to measure the performance of PPAs in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. In terms of efficiency, the review tracks the accomplishments of the outputs and activities, and the utilization of the budget. On the other hand, effectiveness focuses on the realization of outcomes as manifested in the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The quarterly review is a mechanism that allows DepEd to get updated information on the performance of PPAs, and timely response on the bottlenecks, challenges, and constraints encountered by the program proponents affecting the delivery of basic education services. After the conduct of the PIR, program proponents are given ten (10) working days to revise their Work and Financial Plan through Plan Adjustment.
Program Management
includes monitoring and evaluation, regular meetings with the Division ALS focal persons, and other organizational management activities.
Program Owners
is a term used to describe or group of people in an office of the the Central, Regional and Schools Division levels that serves as the overall in-charge of a specific program or project of DepEd. They are responsible for the formulation of plans and budget, its execution and implementation as well as the monitoring of the accomplishment of the commited outputs and outcomes.
Program Support Fund (PSF)
ten percent (10%) of the School-Based Management (SBM) Grant’s Installation and Support Funds (ISF) shall be distributed among the different administrative levels of the Department of Education (DepEd) to support the operations of the Divisions, Regions, and the Central Office in ensuring smooth implementation of the SBM Grants.
Program Support Funds
refers to a sum of money used to support the operations of Division, Regions, and Central Office as they perform their mandate of ensuring the smooth implementation of the ALS in SBM Grants.
Program/Project Profile
contains information about the program/project such as the problems being addressed, key strategies to address the problems, program beneficiaries/ recipients, duration of the intervention, multi-year funding requirements, and risk and assumption. It also includes the desired results (outcome and impact) after the intervention as well as basic information on the implementing office which manages the program/project.
Programs
are integrated group of activities that contribute to an agency’s continuing objective such as General Administration and Support, Support to Operations, and Operations (DBM National Budget Circular No. 559, dated 26 June 2015). Programs are strategic interventions anchored on DepEd mandate, goals and national policies such that implementation of programs constitutes or supports the Department’s core business.
Programs/Activities/Projects (PAPs)
activities undertaken by a department/agency to achieve the purpose for which it is established or created to deliver its Major Final Output (MFO)

represents the structure of the current budgeting framework used to appropriate funds in the General Appropriations Act (GAA)
Progress Monitoring
refers to the systematic and objective assessment of an on-going implementation of a plan or project. It aims to steer the implementation as efficiently as possible based on empirical facts determined through a systematic observation and documentation process and through a verifiable assessment process.
Project
undertaking, whether construction work, research or training program, computer engagement or other authorized activities which an agency shall prosecute or implement in favor or in behalf of another agency
Project Implementation Plan (PIP)
detailed listing of programs/projects/activities costs, expected difficulties, and schedules that are required to achieve the objectives of the strategic plans.
Project Procurement Management Plan (PPMP)
refers to the procurement plan of a specific PPA of an implementing office. This includes information on whether the PPAs will be contracted out, implemented by administration or consigned, the type and objectives of contract to be employed, the extent/size of contract scope/packages, the procurement methods to be adopted, time schedule for each procurement activity and contract implementation, and the estimated budget for the general components of the contract.
Project Procurement Management Plan (PPMP)
serves as a guide document in the procurement and contract implementation process, as well as a vital reference in procurement monitoring.
Project Team
A school team that implements improvement projects, reports on project status, outputs and outcomes, and prepares and maintains project documentation and records. The members of the Project Team are drawn from the community, teachers, and learners with at least one member coming from the School Community Planning Team (SPT).
Projects
are agency undertakings within a definite time frame and which are designed to produce pre-determined goods or services (DBM National Budget Circular No. 559, dated 26 June 2015). Projects are interventions relatively narrower in scope compared to programs. Projects yield more immediate results for specific target groups. Projects may be components of or anchored on programs or are independent of any program. Projects may be designed or implemented in support of a program, address learners’ and other needs not covered by a program or to experiment, try out or pilot an innovation or solution. Projects have specific time frames (short- or medium-term), follow defined schedules or work plans and are implemented through activities.
Promoted
is the status of a learner who has achieved a final grade of at least 75% in all learning areas. The learner will be promoted to the next grade level. In the system, if no other status is selected, the learner is tagged as “Promoted”.
Promotion
refers to the advancement of a career employee from one position to another with an increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law, and usually accompanied by an increase in salary.
Proponent/s
refers to an individual or group that submitted a proposal for a research grant.
Protection against tobacco industry interference
refers to measures to protect policies from the commercial and vested interests of the tobacco industry including but not limited to measures found in CSC-DOH JMC 2010-01 and DepEd Order No. 6, s. 2012 and similar policies. These policies prohibit unnecessary interaction with, receiving contributions from, according preferential treatment to, engaging in occupational activity within the tobacco industry; and require conducting necessary interaction publicly and transparently, taking efforts to prevent or correct any perception of partnership with the tobacco industry, disclosing interests with the tobacco industry, and raising awareness about and reporting on tobacco industry interference.
Protective Personal Equipment (PPE)
protective garments or equipment worn by individuals to increase personal safety from infectious agents.
Provisional
refers to an appointment issued to an appointee who meets all the requirements of the position except the eligibility but only in the absence of a qualified eligible actually available who is willing to accept the appointment, as certified by the Schools Division Superintendent. It shall not be effective beyond the school year during which it was issued. The appointment may be subject to reappointment (renewal). Scholar-graduates of the Merit Scholarship Program of the Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute (DOST-SEI) shall be allowed to teach on provisional status, which appointment may be renewed every school year but not to exceed four (4) years. (CSC MC No. 14, s. 2018, ORAOHRA)
Provisional
refers to an appointment issued to an appointee who meets all the requirements of the position except the eligibility but only in the absence of a qualified eligible actually available who is willing to accept the appointment, as certified by the Schools Division Superintendent, pursuant to CSC Memorandum Circular No. 14, s. 2018 or the 2017 Omnibus Rules on Appointment and Other Human Resource Actions (ORAOHRA), Revised 2018.
Provisional
refers to an appointment issued to an appointee to a teaching position who meets all the requirements of the position except the Eligibility but only in the absence of a qualified eligible actually available who is willing to accept the appointment, as certified by the Schools Division Superintendent. It shall not be effective beyond the school year during which it was issued1. The appointment shall be subject to reappointment (renewal).
Provisional Appointment
refers to the appointment issued to an appointee who meets all the requirements of the position except the eligibility but only in the absence of a qualified eligible available who is willing to accept the appointment, as certified by the Schools Division Superintendent.
Proxy indicator
is an indirect measure or sign that approximates or represents a phenomenon in the absence of a direct measure or sign. It is also known as indirect indicator.
Public Education Network (PEN)
to make sure that all schools will be connected, cyber security protocols are standardized, and utilization of ICT equipment can be monitored by DepEd.

the PEN aims to connect all public schools to all DepEd offices and to one another. This is to make data transfer possible, even without an internet connection.
Public Expenditure Management (PEM)
seeks to change the orientation of expenditure management from focusing on rules and processes to focusing on three key objectives or outcomes:

– Fiscal discipline – living within the means or resources available to the government
– Allocative efficiency – spending money on the right things or right priorities
– Operational efficiency – obtaining the best value for the money or resources available
Public Financial Management (PFM)
aims to improve efficiency, accountability and transparency in public funds use in order to ensure the direct, immediate, substantial and economical delivery of public services especially to the poor.

comprehensive reform agenda that seeks to clarify, simplify, improve and harmonize the government’s financial management processes and information systems.
Public Rural Farm School
refers to a rural farm school operated by the government or any of its political subdivisions; and
Public Sector Labor Management Council (PSLMC)
responsible for the promulgation, implementation and administration of the guidelines for the exercise of the right of government employees to organize pursuant to Executive No. 180.
Public affairs
engagement of stakeholders in the government, media, private organizations and individuals to further and improve DepEd’s policies, programs, and projects.
Public school teachers
are defined in RA No. 4670, otherwise known as Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, as “All persons engaged in classroom teaching, in any level of instruction, on full-time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians, industrial arts or vocational instructors, and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools, colleges, and universities operated by the government or its political subdivisions; but this shall not include school nurses, school physicians, school dentists, and other school employees.”
Publication
refers to DepEd official issuances containing official information, rules and regulations and other reading materials for dissemination to the concerned public.
Published Work
refers to a copyrighted work, as enshrined in RA 8293 otherwise known as the “Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines” made available to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending on an unrestricted basis. This includes works that are literary, scholarly, scientific and/or artistic in nature published in a book, journal, anthology, textbook, newsletter, newspaper, magazine, or any other recognized publication medium.
Pure Multi-Grade (MG) School
refers to a school that solely offers combined classes of two or more grade levels except for Kindergarten.
Pure Multigrade School
refers to a school with pure Multigrade classes which consist of two (2) and/or more grades per class.
Purposive learning
Knowledge and skills acquisition designed with a clear purpose, goal or objective in mind.
Q
QMS Planning Documents
A set of documents updated annually which contain the context, risks, opportunities, and quality objectives
Qualification Standards
refer to the minimum qualifications required by the position in terms of Education, Training, Experience, Eligibility, and Competency.
Qualified Voucher Applicant (QVA)
refers to a voucher applicant whose application is successful and is thus considered a QVR.
Qualified Voucher Recipient (QVR)
refers to a Grade 10 completer who is eligible to avail of the voucher in SY 2021-2022 because they are either an automatically qualified learner or a QVA.
Qualified Voucher Recipients (QVRs)
Grade 10 completers that qualify for the voucher subsidy.
Qualifying Examination in Arabic Language and Islamic Studies (QEALIS)
An examination given to the new asatidz applicants, which is administered by the Bureau of Education Assessment (BEA). It is the entry level requirement for asatidz.
Qualifying Examination in Arabic Language and Islamic Studies (QEALIS)
is an examination administered by the Bureau of Education Assessment (BEA) to individuals applying to be asatidz. It is the entry-level requirement for asatidz.
Quality
The degree to which service delivery fulfills the agency and client requirements.
Quality Management System (QMS)
A formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives in order for an organization to meet client and regulatory requirements and improve its effectiveness and efficiency through continuous improvement.
Quality Policy Statement (QPS)
The articulation of DepEd’s commitment to implement the National QMS in accordance with the agency’s mandate, Vision, Mission, and Core Values
Quarantine
the restriction of movement, or separation from the rest of the population, of healthy persons who may have been exposed to the virus, with the objective of monitoring their symptoms and ensuring early detection of case. This covers self-quarantine or community quarantine in this policy.
R
RPMS Tools
Assessment instruments used to ensure quality teacher performance at different career stages.
Ranking
refers to the process by which the performance category of delivery units and personnel is determined based on the conduct of performance review and evaluation as stipulated in this Order.
Rape and Grave Sexual Violence of Children
This violation includes acts of sexual violence such as rape, enforced sterilization, forced prostitution, forced marriage, or pregnancy, as well as sexual slavery. Rape refers to the crime of rape as defined under Article 266-A of the Revised Penal Code, as amended by Republic Act No. 8353 or the AntiRape Law.
Ratee
refers to the individual employee concerned.
Ratee
The individual teacher who is rated. They are the teachers from all career stages who submit their Portfolios as evidence of their teaching performance. (DepEd Order No. 2, s. 2015, p. 2).
Rater
refers to the immediate superior who directly supervises the performance of the individual employee and gives the preliminary rating for approval of the head of office at the end of the rating period based on the performance measures.
Rater
May be the school head, assistant principal, head teacher, master teacher who evaluates the Portfolio presented by the Ratee.
Rating Period
is the period covering one (1) year performance defined as performance cycle under the Results-Based Performance Management System (RPMS) guidelines. The rating period or performance cycle of schoolbased personnel covers the period from April of the current year to March of the following year; while the rating period of non school-based personnel covers the performance from January to December of the current year.
Rating Period
refers to the period covering one (1) year or 12 months performance.
Rating Period
refers to the period covering one (1) year or 12 months performance.
Ready to Print materials
materials ready for mass printing.
Ready-to-Print Materials
refer to materials ready for mass printing and distribution.
Ready-to-Print Materials
refer to materials ready for mass printing and distribution.
Reappointment
refers to the issuance of an appointment as a result of reorganization, devolution, salary standardization, re-nationalization, recategorization, rationalization or similar events, including the following: (1) The issuance of appointment from temporary to permanent, career to non-career or vice versa, non-career to another non-career, all of which entails no gap in the sendee, shall be considered as reappointment. Non-career employees who arc appointed for the first time in the career service under permanent status shall be required to undergo probationary period for six (6) months. (2) The renewal of temporary, contractual and casual appointment upon the expiration of the appointment or subsequent appointment of substitute teachers, which entails no gap in the service, shall be considered as reappointment. A temporary appointment may be renewed in the absence of an applicant who meets all the qualification requirements of the position as certified by the appointing officer / authority and provided that the performance rating of the employee is at least Satisfactory. […] (CSC MC No. 14, s. 2018, ORAOHRA)
Recognition
is a quality assurance process intended to uphold the learning and development standards in the development and delivery of professional development programs and courses provided to DepEd teachers and school leaders through an evaluation mechanism (DO No. 001, s. 2020).
Recognition
a quality assurance process intended to uphold the learning and development standards in the development and delivery of professional development programs and courses provided to DepEd teachers and school leaders through an evaluation mechanism.
Reconstitution of Inspectorate Team
refers to the process of restructuring the composition of existing Inspectorate Teams in the DepEd CO, ROs, SDOs and Schools, and designating the members thereof.
Recovery needs
the amount to bring back normalcy, valued in consideration of inflation and international prices as necessary for rehabilitation of damaged assets, resumption of the disrupted functions, process and access to basic needs as well as recovery of losses and incorporating risk reduction measures towards building back better.
Recruitment
refers to the process of searching for, attracting, and obtaining applications for employment. The result is a pool of applicants from which possible appointees are selected.
Recruitment and Use of Children
Recruitment includes acts of voluntary, compulsory, or forced conscription or enlistment to any armed force or armed group. The use of children in the context of armed conflict includes the use of minors in any capacity, such as, but not limited to: fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, sexual slaves or spies. This violation also includes cases of “labeling” or “associating” a child with an armed group or force.
Reemployment
refers to the appointment of a person who has been previously appointed to a position in the government sendee but was separated therefrom as a result of reduction in force, reorganization, retirement, voluntary resignation, or any non-disciplinary action such as dropping from the rolls and other modes of separation. Reemployment presupposes a gap in the service.
Refined Elementary Madrasah Curriculum (REMC)
A curriculum developed specifically for ALIVE classes in public elementary school.
Refined Standard Madrasah Curriculum (RSMC)
A curriculum developed and implemented by DepEd for private madaris.
Reflection Notes
The insights or realizations that teachers write as a result of careful introspection on events, discussions, decisions and/or actions they make. Reflections notes may be attached to an MOV, written as marginal notes or appended in the form of journal entries.
Reflective Thinking
Critical self-reflection on one’s own teaching-learning process. It helps develop higher-order thinking skills. For teachers, reflective thinking aids them in improving their teaching practice because it allows them to note classroom experiences, critically evaluate them, relate new knowledge and insights to prior understandings and apply their insights to improve their teaching practice.
Regional ALIVE Coordinator (RAC)
This refers to regional focal persons handling ALIVE program.
Regional Selection Committee (RSC)
is a multi-sectoral committee from the region tasked to conduct all the activities of the NLA selection process.
Registry of Qualified Applicants (RQA)
refers to the official list of applicants who obtained an overall score of seventy (70) points and above based on the criteria and as a result of the evaluation and selection process set herein.
Regular Cash Advance (RCA)
amount granted to cashiers, disbursing officers, paymasters, and/or other accountable officers for the payment of expenses such as salaries and wages, commutable allowances, honoraria and other similar payments to officials and employees
Regular High School
is a public school offering secondary education level, following elementary education level primarily concerned with continuing basic education which corresponds to four (4) years of high school, or six (6) years of high school upon the full implementation of K to 12 Law.

Pursuant to Section 7 of Republic Act No. 6655, otherwise known as the “Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988,” all Public Secondary Schools nationwide shall be considered as National High Schools. Regular High School shall include all existing schools named as General Comprehensive, Municipal and Barangay High Schools.
Regular High School with Special Curriculum Program
is a school offering enriched programs in special education, mathematics, sciences, creative arts, sports, journalism, foreign languages, technical and vocational, Information Technology (IT), entrepreneurial courses, or other similar fields of specialization, in addition to the core curriculum in basic education.
Rehabilitation
is the process of helping a person who has suffered an illness or injury restore lost skills and so regain maximum self-sufficiency. For example, rehabilitation work after a stroke may help the patient walk and speak clearly again.
Rehabilitation
measures that ensure the ability of affected communities/areas to restore their normal level of functioning by rebuilding livelihood and damaged infrastructures and increasing the communities’ organizational capacity.
Reimbursement Expense Receipt (form)
form used to reimburse all disbursements supported Official Receipts (OR) acceptable to Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) where the money is advanced by the official concerned and the expense is authorized to be reimbursed by the government agency concerned
Related-Teaching Position
refers to a position whose primary duties and responsibilities contribute to the delivery of basic education services and achievement of agency outcomes, through the provision of direct support to teaching and the delivery of instruction, such as standard setting, policy and program formulation, research, and sector monitoring and evaluation.
Relevant Interested Parties (RIPs)
Internal and external clients or stakeholders that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a policy or program of DepEd (e.g. DepEd personnel, external partners)
Remedial
any form of organized instructional interventions given to a learner during summer class to address his or her learning gaps or subject area deficiency. The remedial can be made in a form of tutorial, mentoring, coaching, or other ways of delivering the organized learning experiences.
Remote Enrollment
a process of registering learners conducted without face-to-face interaction.
Remote Enrollment
a process of registering learners conducted without face-to-face interaction
Renaming of School
is the changing, modification or correction of the name of an existing school.
Reporting Office
refers to the office in any governance level in-charge of reporting and submission of the required reports to the AO25 Secretariat and/or validating agencies.
Request for Action (RFA)
A form used by the IQA team or any DepEd personnel to record and/or report any detected or potential nonconformity/ies with set standards (e.g. ISO 9001, declared processes).
Request for Quotation (RFQ) (form)
request for information and lowest possible price/quotation from suppliers of a particular product or service

request, however, does not commit the Government to pay any costs incurred in the preparation of the submission of the quotation or to contract for supplies or service
Research
is an organized, systematic and logical process of inquiry, using empirical information or data, to answer questions, solve problems, and guide actions, in aid of workplace improvement through efficiency in operation, increased production, improved working standards, and/or savings in government spending.
Research Agenda
a document containing a list of priority education research areas to guide DepEd and its stakeholders in the conduct of research.
Research Manager/s
is an individual/office that oversees research initiatives (i.e. call for proposals, evaluation, tracking of progress) at their respective governance levels.
Research Proposal
is a document which provides the details of a proposed study (i.e. research purpose and methodology, estimated cost, work plan).
Research-based knowledge
Information, knowledge or data acquired through systematic investigation and logical study.
Resilience
is the ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.
Resource Room
refers to a room within a medium or small school that does not have the ILRC. It serves as a place to render remedial or any other interventions for LWDs who need additional support services.
Responsibility Accounting
provides access to cost and revenue information under the supervision of a manager having a direct responsibility for its performance

system that measures the plans (by budgets) and actions (by actual results) of each responsibility center
Responsibility Center
part, segment, unit or function of a government agency, headed by a manager, who is accountable for a specified set of activities

established to provide each government agency’s accessibility to cost information and to facilitate cost monitoring at any given period
Results-based Performance Management System (RPMS)
refers to the DepEd-contextualized SPMS. It is an organization-wide process of ensuring that employees focus work efforts towards achieving DepEd vision, mission, values, and strategic priorities. It is also a mechanism to manage, monitor and measure performance, and identify human resource and organizational development needs.
Retained
is the status of a learner who did not meet expectations in at least three (3) learning areas. The learner remains in the same grade level.
Retirement and Life Insurance Premiums (RLIP)
share of the National Government (NG) in the premium payments to Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), for the life insurance and retirement benefit fund of government employees
Returned Check
check returned by the bank due to errors or deficiencies in the maker’s or agency’s/entity’s account
Revenue
gross inflow of economic benefits or service potential during the reporting period when those inflows result in an increase in net assets/equity, other than increases relating to contributions from owners
Revenue funds
all funds derived from the income of any agency of the government and available for appropriation or expenditure in accordance with law.
Risk
The effect of uncertainty on an expected result or problems that may or may not occur in the future and cause a negative impact on the delivery of services.
Risk Assessment
is a methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by analyzing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that together could potentially harm exposed people, property, services, livelihood and the environment on which they depend. Risk assessments with associated risk mapping include: a review of the technical characteristics of hazards such as their location, intensity, frequency and probability; the analysis of exposure and vulnerability including the physical, social, health, economic and environmental dimensions; and the evaluation of the effectiveness of prevailing and alternative coping capacities with respect to likely risk scenarios.
Risk-based Thinking
A systematic approach that involves a coordinated set of activities and methods that organizations use to manage and control the many risks that affect its ability to achieve its objectives.
Rubrics
refer to the scoring guide used to assess the qualification of applicants based on set evaluative criteria. It usually includes the quality definitions of each criterion at particular levels of attainment and a scoring system.
Rural Farm School
refers to a parallel learning system and an alternative delivery mode of secondary education. It provides for facilitative and experiential learning on the core subjects of the secondary education curriculum with focus on agri-fisheries, designed to address the needs of children in rural, agricultural, and fishing communities.
S
SHS Immersion
is the prescribed eighty-hour culminating activity each SHS student has to complete as the practical application of the skills he or she has learned from his/her chosen track/strand program, as well as a requirement for graduation. Immersion is implemented in collaboration with a business or industry-partner which provides the necessary expertise and venue for practical, on-the-job, enterprise-based training for SHS learners.
SHS Subject Groups
are related SHS subjects grouped according to needed teacher specialization/preparation, such that all the subjects in any track/strand offered by the school can be taught by qualified teachers. The SHS subject groups shall be the basis for preparing the SHS Registry of Qualified Applicants. SHS teacher applicants should also indicate the SHS subject group they intend to teach in their application letter. Ideally, SHS teachers should be able to teach most, if not all, of the subjects in the same group. SHS teachers may also teach subjects from different groups provided that he/she qualified to do so.

For the purposes of these guidelines, the SHS Subject Groups are as follows:

Group I. HUMSS and the following subject groupings:

I-A: Oral Communication, Reading and Writing, English for Academic and Professional Purposes, Practical Research
I-B: Komunikasyon at Pananaliksik sa Wika at Kulturang Pilipino,Pagbasa at Pagsusuri ng Iba’t ibang Teksto sa Pananaliksik,Pagsulat sa Filipino sa Piling Larangan
I-C: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World; Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Region; Understanding Culture, Society and Politics; Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person and related specialized HUMSS subjects
I-D: Media and Information Literacy; Empowerment Technologies (for the Strands)

Group II. ABM and Entrepreneurship, Research and Work Immersion

Group III. STEM and the following subject groupings:

III-A: General Mathematics, Statistics and Probability and related specialized STEM subjects
III-B: Earth Science, Earth and Life Science, Physical Science and related specialized STEM subjects

Group IV. TVL and the following specializations:

IV-A: Specialized TVL/Agri-Fisheries
IV-B: Specialized TVL/Industrial Arts
IV-C: Specialized TVL/ICT
IV-D: Specialized TVL/Home Economics Group
V. Sports and the following subjects:
• Physical Education and Health, Personal Development and related specialized Sports Subjects

Group VI. Arts and Design
SMART Criteria
refers to the criteria by which the objectives are identified. The SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time Bound.
SPED – Delivering Improvement in Partnership
a hands-on approach on collaboration with parents and the community.
SPED – Early Intervention
ensuring those children with disabilities and their parents has access to suitable help and care.
SPED – Raising Expectations and Achievement
developing teaching skills and strategies and focusing on progress children make.
SPED – Removing Barriers to Learning
embedding inclusive practice in all schools and early years.
SPED – Transition Program
A set of coordinated activities for a student designed within an outcome-oriented process that promotes movement from school to out-of-school activities, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, independent living, or community participation. A transition program focuses on appropriate intervention for children with intellectual disabilities who have completed the intermediate level or who are over-aged for the elementary/secondary level.
Sampling Plan
is an instrument used in determining the sample size of a given quantity of goods for inspection and the Acceptable Quality Level. This shall be prepared by the IU/EU for projects consisting of goods the nature and volume of which require inspection by sampling.
Satellite Schools
Identified 12 or more schools within the vicinity of the beneficiary school.
School
refers to any structure or space, with or without marked visible boundaries, which is either recognized by the government or known by the community as a learning space for children.
School
refers to an educational institution, private and public, undertaking educational operation under the DepEd, usually located in a building or a group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber cite. It shall also refer to a learning center or a physical space to house learning resources and facilities of a learning program such as the Alternative Learning System under the DepEd for Out-of-School Youth.
School
is a public educational institution, under the control and supervision of the Department of Education, undertaking educational operation with a specific age-group of pupils or students pursuing defined studies at defined levels, receiving instruction from teachers, usually located in a building or a group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber site.
School Administration Position
refers to a position whose primary duties and responsibilities are management and supervision of schools and/or learning centers.
School Administration Positions
refer to positions that are directly engaged in supervisory, managerial and/or administrative functions in all schools and learning centers.
School Annex
is an existing public school campus that is fully dependent on its mother school but located in another school site. School annexes are issued separate DepED School IDs for purposes of school site identification. Administration, management and instructional supervision and control rests with the mother school.
School Building Program (SBP)
program for the construction, rehabilitation, replacement, completion and repair of kindergarten, elementary and secondary school buildings including the construction of water and sanitation facilities and acquisition of school desks, furniture and fixtures
School Checking Committee (SCC)
The committee at the school level responsible for the review and preparation of learners’ records in preparation for the annual checking of forms conducted by the DCC.
School Classified as Remote
refers to a school which is located in a typically rural and hard-to-reach community (mountain, island, or forest) with very limited opportunities for an Immersion Program and future employment.
School Classified as Rural
refers to a school located in a predominantly agricultural or fishing community with a small number of industries and population and with limited opportunities for an Immersion Program and future employment. The classification of municipalities set by the DILG and NEDA shall serve as reference or guide to determine whether a school may be classified as rural under these guidelines.
School Classified as Urban
refers to a school located in a community which is industrialized, populated, and offers a lot of opportunities for immersion and future employment. The classification for cities and municipalities set by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) and National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) shall serve as reference or guide to determine whether a school may be classified as urban under these guidelines.
School Community Planning Team (SPT)
A team composed of internal and external stakeholders organized for the purpose of identifying school concerns and issues, and strategically coming up with appropriate interventions through a collaborative process.
School Day
is a day devoted to instructionally relevant activities pursuant to engaging students in learning the lessons of the curriculum (adopted from D.O. No. 9, s. 2005).
School Enrollment Focal Person (SEFP)
personnel designated by the school to oversee the overall conduct of enrollment and who shall receive all MLESF submitted by parents or guardians.
School Form 1 (SF1) School Register
A list of learners who are officially enrolled and attending classes.
School Form 10 (SF10) Learner’s Permanent Academic Record (formerly Form 137)
The official record of an individual learner’s academic achievement as he or she progresses through the basic education cycle.
School Form 2 (SF2) Daily Attendance Report of Learner
A list of the learners’ daily attendance.
School Form 3 (SF3) Books Issued and Returned
A list of books and other reading materials issued to the learners, and returned to the issuing authority.
School Form 4 (SF4) Monthly Learner’s Movement and Attendance
A summary number of learners who transferred in/out and dropped out during the month and cumulative count from previous months.
School Form 5 (SF5) Report on Promotion and Level of Proficiency
A list of the learners’ academic performance and result of assessment by the end of the school year.
School Form 5K (SF5K) Report on Promotion and Level of Proficiency for Kinder
A list of the learners’ result of assessment by the end of the school year for Kindergarten.
School Form 6 (SF6) Summarized Report on Promotion and Level of Proficiency
A summary number of learner status by the end of the semester and/or school year.
School Forms Checking Report (SFCR)
A report in a matrix format summarizing the results of the checking activity at the school, district, and division levels.
School Governance and Operations Division (SGOD)
shall refer to the EPS counterpart in the Division Offices.
School Governing Council
refers to a committee composed of the school head or his/her representative, parents, teachers, and representatives of other government agencies.
School Head
Person “responsible for administrative and instructional supervision of a school or cluster of schools” (Republic Act 9155, Section 4).
School Head
refers to the person responsible for the administrative and instructional supervision of the school. In the absence of the Principal, this concept shall refer to the Teacher-In-Charge, Head Teacher, Master Teacher or other persons officially designated as School Head by the Schools Division Superintendent (SDS).
School Head
refers to the Principal or Officer-In-Charge (OIC) of the school designated by the SDS, responsible and accountable for the administrative management and instructional supervision of the school or cluster of schools.
School Head
is a person responsible and accountable for the administrative management and instructional supervision of the school or cluster of schools.
School Improvement Plan (SIP)
is a roadmap that lays down specific interventions that a school, with the help of the community and other stakeholders, undertakes within a period of three consecutive school years. It aims to improve the three key result areas in basic education: access, quality and governance. It is evidence-based, results-based and child- or learner-centered. The SIP is prepared by the School-Community Planning Team (SPT) and is the basis for the school AIP.
School Improvement Plan (SIP)
is a strategic plan for improvement, guided by the stipulations of DepED Order 44, s. 2015 [Guidelines on the Enhanced School Improvement Planning (SIP) Process and the School Report Card (SRC)], which identifies the school’s priorities, how to achieve key outcomes and targets using available resources, and raise the school’s standards.
School Improvement Plan (SIP)
education development plan that shows the intent and design that the schools will undertake to introduce improvements in learning outcomes within the context of School-Based Management (SBM) in a prescribed period and at a given cost

school program/project proposal that primarily focuses on the development of ideal or educationally maximal learning environment for children based on the accepted/approved School Improvement Plan (SIP) and Annual Improvement Plan (AIP) submitted to the Division Office that outlines a proposed project and shows budgetary requirements and requests monetary assistance in the form of a grant
School Leaders
are Head Teachers, Department Heads, Principals and Assistant Principals, Schools District Supervisors, Education Program Supervisors, Chief Education Supervisors at the Schools Division and Regional Offices, Schools Division Superintendents, Assistant Schools Division Superintendents, Regional Directors and Assistant Regional Directors. These officials perform managerial and supervisory roles in their respective levels of governance (DO No. 001, s. 2020).
School Library
is an information center, audio-visual center, and instructional material center. (Source: DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998). It also refers to a library associated or connected with a school whose main users are the learners, teachers, and staff.
School Mapping
It is an activity that teachers/asatidz shall perform during summer class where they look for possible learners to enroll in the program. It serves as one way of advocating the program.
School Partnership Focal Person
is the person authorized to seek partnerships between DepEd and Institutions (Deped Order 40, s. 2015).
School ReportCard (SRC)
A report that provides stakeholders a snapshot of the school’s current condition and performance. It is a tool for advocating and communicating the school situation, context, and performance to internal and external stakeholders to involve them in making the school a better learning place for the learners.
School-Based Management (SBM)
refers to the decentralization of decision-making authority from Central, Regional and Division Levels to the individual schools, with the intent of bringing together the School Heads, ALS teachers, ALS learners as well as parents, the local government units, and the community at large in producing improved learning outcomes through effective schools/CLCs.
School-Based Management (SBM)
decentralization of decision-making authority from central, regional and division levels to the individual schools, with the intent of bringing together the school heads, teachers, students as well as parents, the local government units, and the community at large in bringing about improved learning outcomes through effective schools

responsibility and decision-making over school operations is transferred to principals, teachers, parents, sometimes students, and other school community members
School-Based Personnel
include the teaching, school administration, related teaching, and non-teaching personnel assigned and/or detailed in the schools and community learning centers (CLCs) or cluster of schools and/or CLCs.

These include Alternative Learning System (ALS)/mobile teachers, District ALS Coordinators (DALSCs), medical personnel, nurses, administrative and finance personnel, including SDO personnel who are officially designated as concurrent and/or officer-in-charge in schools/CLCs, who are directly servicing the schools/CLCs and/or whose services are shared by a cluster of schools/CLCs. These are personnel whose plantilia may be lodged in the SDO and/or are stationed in the SDO or in multiple schools/CLCs, but whose nature of work or functions involve learning delivery or support to school operations and management.
School-BasedFeeding Program
the provision of hot meals to undernourished Kinder to Grade 6 learners and all Kinder in Philippine Plan of Action (PPAN) 2017-2022 Focus Areas based on stunting prevalence, to improve classroom attendance and encourage learners to go to school every day. The meal must meet 1/3 of the recommended intake in the Philippine Dietary Reference Intakes (PDRI).
Schools Division Office (SDO)
The governance unit accountable for supervising the operations of all public and private elementary, secondary and integrated schools, and learning centers at the division level.
Second Level Position
refers to a position which involves professional, technical, and scientific work in a non-supervisory or supervisory capacity up to Division Chief level or its equivalent.
Second Level Positions
include professional, technical, and scientific positions which involve professional, technical, and scientific work in a non-supervisory or supervisory capacity up to Division Chief level or its equivalent.
Secondary Evidence
refers to documentary evidence to support any claim of graduation from, or completion of, any level in formal educational system when school records are reported lost, damaged or destroyed; in which case, the applicant must submit any of the following to support his / her claim:

i. Sworn Statement of any two (2) of the applicant’s classmates, principals, or teachers; and supported by either the school graduation photos, souvenir program, or graduation program; or
ii. Duly certified copy of either Form 137 or Form 138 of the learner on file in any Tertiary Learning Institutions; or diploma I transcript of records on file in the learner’s current/previous employer/s.
Secondary Schools
Refer to Junior and Senior High School, grade levels seven (7) to twelve ( 12).
Selection
refers to the procedure by which applicants are screened, assessed, and evaluated vis-a-vis the requirements of the position to be filled. The objective is to produce comparative assessment results of candidates best suited for appointment.
Self-contained SPED class
refers to a class, where a special education teacher is responsible for the instruction of all subjects of a learner with disability/difficulty. The class is typically separated from general education classes but is still implemented within a school.
Self-learning Module (SLM)
is a primary learning resource for distance learning, which is either printed or digital, focusing on the development of one or several related MELCs in a learning area/subject area. It is interactive, self-contained, self-instructional, and Compact, with learning timeframe suggested by the teacher in accordance with DepEd policy. An SLM is developed and intended primarily for the use of learners outside the classroom setting and when classes are disrupted that would limit face to face interaction between the learner and the teacher. An SLM shall not exceed thirty-two (32) pages, excluding the cover pages. However, if an SLM covers two or more related MELCs, it should not exceed forty 40 pages, excluding the cover pages.
Senior High School
refers to an educational institution, public or private, undertaking educational operations offering Grades 11 and 12 with specialized upper secondary education based on the defined tracks and strands under the K to 12 program of the Enhanced Basic Education with students pursuing defined studies and receiving instruction from teachers, usually located in a building or group/s of building in a particular physical or cyber site.
Senior High School (SHS)
is the third stage of compulsory basic education. It consists of two (2) years (Grades 11 and 12) high school education following the completion of four (4) years of JHS. The entrant age is typically sixteen (16) years old. It shall serve as a specialized upper (upper level or higher-level) secondary education. The SHS program consists of different tracks, strands and specializations that learners may choose from depending on their aptitude, interests, and school capacity.
Senior High School (SHS) Track
refers to specific program in SHS a learner may choose based on his/her interest and aspiration. SHS has four (4) tracks, namely: 1) Academic Track; 2) Technical-Vocational-Livehood Track; 3) Arts and Design Track; and 4) Sports Track. A track is further sub-classified into strands.
Senior High School Teacher
refers to a person who meets the minimum requirements whether on full-time or part-time basis including industrial arts and vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory, managerial and/or administrative functions in all schools and educational offices at the district, division, regional and central levels and qualified to practice teaching under RA 7836 and/or those performing functions in support of education such as standard setting, policy and programs formulation, research and sector monitoring and evaluation.

A DepEd teacher having both JHS and SHS teaching loads will only be considered an SHS teacher (with an SHS item) if he/she has satisfied all requirements, successfully undergone the application process for a SHS teaching position, and has a predominantly SHS teaching load, that is, more than fifty percent (50%) of his/her teaching load are those of SHS.
Senior High School Work Immersion
shall refer to the component of the Senior High School Program consisting of 80 hours of hands-on experience or work simulation which Grades 11 and 12 students will undergo to obtain much-needed exposure and learn competencies related to the actual workplace setting.
Separation of School Annex
is the process of detaching an existing school annex from its mother school to become a separate and independent school.
Services in-kind
services provided by individuals to public sector agencies in a non-exchange transaction
Significant incidents
are actual events and behaviors in which positive and negative performances are observed and documented.
Site Development Plan
is a graphic presentation that shows the implementation of all improvements that are needed for a school site, including the position of existing and proposed buildings, the arrangement of circulation elements, and the utilization of open areas, before construction of classrooms or school buildings may begin.
Skeleton/Physically Reporting Workforce
refers to the operational capacity which utilizes the smallest number of people needed for a business or organization to maintain its basic functions.
Skill
It is the coordinated performance of related tasks with a certain degree of facility.
Skills Development Area
refers to where the learners with disabilities are trained to gain skills on arts and craft, cookery, bread and pastry, and ICT to prepare them for the world of work.
Small Value Goods
the maximum amount per item to be procured is PhP 64,000. These goods can be categorized as Small Value Procurement (SVP) as defined in R.A. 9184 as “Procurement of goods not covered by Shopping under Section 52 of the IRR of RA 9184, where the amount involved does not exceed the threshold of One Million Pesos (PhP 1,000,000) for NGAs, GOCCs, GFIs, SUCs and Autonomous Region Government”.
Small Value or Ordinary Goods
are goods with a maximum amount per item below PHP 5,000.00 and maybe available in the locality; it comprises 97.85% of the total number of goods to be procured locally. While the remaining 2.15% are goods with a value of more than PHP 5,000.00 per item but not more than 85,000.00. These goods can. be categorized as Small Value Procurement (SVP) as defined in R.A. 9184 as “Procurement of goods not covered by Shopping under Section 52 of the IRR of RA 9184, where the amount involved does not exceed the threshold of One Million Pesos (PHP 1,000,000) for NGAs, GOCCs, GFis, SUCs and Autonomous Region Government”.
Source Agency
refers to the agency to which the allotment has been originally released and in whose behalf or benefit the project will be prosecuted/implemented
Special Accounts in the General Fund (SAGF)
a fund whereby proceeds of specific revenue measures and grants earmarked by law for specific priority projects are recorded
Special Allotment Release Order (SARO)
specific authority issued to identified agencies to incur obligations not exceeding a given amount during a specified period for the purpose indicated that are classified as “needing clearance”

shall cover expenditures the release of which is subject to compliance with specific laws or regulations, or is subject to separate approval or clearance by competent authority

agencies need to submit to DBM Special Budget Request and supporting documents before they can draw funds
Special Cash Advance (SCA)
amount granted on the explicit authority of the Head of the Agency only to duly designated disbursing officers or employees for other legally authorized purposes, such as payment of current operating expenditures, including salaries, wages and allowances, travel expenditures, and maintenance and other operating expenses, of the agency field office or for special purpose/time-bound undertaking of the agency when it is impractical to pay the same by check.
Special Education (SPED)
refers to a set of educational programs and/or services designed to address the needs of learners with disabilities through educational plans and instruments which will bring them to the highest level of their potential and capacity (Handbook for SPED, 1987).
Special Education (SPED) learner
a learner in need of basic education that takes into account the special needs of both the differently-abled and the gifted.
Special Education Fund
arises from the additional one percent (1 %) tax on real property and is allotted by the local government to the Local School Boards (LSB)

allocated for:

– the operation and maintenance of public schools
– construction and repair of school buildings, facilities, and equipment
– educational research; purchase of books and periodicals
– sports development
Special Education Teacher
refers to a professional licensed teacher with a specialization on Special Education.
Special Hardship Allowance (SHA)
refers to an additional compensation generally paid to teachers who are exposed to hazards and difficulties because of the nature and/or location of their work.
Special Order (SO)
an authority issued by the Department of Education as a requirement for the graduation of students from the formal secondary level in private schools, on a certain date, and is granted conditionally upon the successful completion of the requirements therefor.
Special Recognition
is given by the school to the learners who have represented and/or won in competitions at the district, division, regional, national, orinternational levels. This is to publicly affirm learners who have brought honor to the school.
Specializations (TVL)
are the variations of technical courses offered by the public TVL track SHS based on the needs of the community. The tools and equipment vary on the requirement of the specializations/program.
Specializations/Programs
are the variations of technical courses offered by the public TVL track SHS based on the needs of the community. The tools and equipment vary on the requirements of the specializations/program.
Speech and Language Therapy Service Area
refers to where the learners with disabilities receive from a Speech Therapist habilitative and rehabilitative programs to improve communicative efficiency of individuals with communication problems of organic and non-organic etiology.
Spending Unit (SU)
may be an operating/implementing or non-implementing unit that is authorized to disburse funds for its operations
Sports Track
is designed for students who intend to pursue sports-related careers, i.e., athlete development, fitness training, coaching and officiating.
Staffing Summary
indicates the number and salaries of permanent filled and unfilled positions
Stakeholders
shall refer to individuals or organizations that enter into agreement with any of the DepEd offices and/or schools to enable DepEd to strengthen its capability to deliver quality basic education. The stakeholders may be, but are not limited to, local government units (LGUs), national government agencies (NGAs), private institutions like private companies, cooperatives, socio-civic organizations, non-government or civil society organizations (NGOs/CSOs), faith-based organizations, higher education institutions (HEIs), technical vocational training institutions (TVTIs) both technical-vocational institutions (TVIs) and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) training institutions (TTIs), other training institutions, professional organizations, entrepreneurs, and private individuals who are willing to lend support to DepEd and its schools for the advancement of learning of the students.
Stakeholders
Persons or organizations that can significantly affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a government decision or activity or have interest or can influence the effective performance of a particular PAPs of an NGA/GOCC.
Stand-alone SHS
is a school situated in a new site separate from a JHS or IS and has its own School Head. It can be established on a buildable space inside an elementary school or on a separate school site.
Stand-alone Senior High Schools
pursuant to DepEd Order No. 51, s. 2015, a Stand-alone SHS is a school situated in a new site separate from a JHS or Integrated School and has its own School Head. It can be established on a buildable space inside an elementary school or on a separate school site.
Standard
In its broadest sense, it is something against which other things can be compared to for the purpose of determining accuracy, estimating quantity or judging quality. It is a stated expectation of what one should know and be able to do.
State of Calamity
is a declaration made by the President of the Republic of the Philippines, through Proclamation No. 929, S.-2020, as extended under Proclamation No. 1021, s. 2020, which afforded the National Government, as well as Local Government Units (LGUs), ample latitude to utilize appropriate funds, including the Quick Response Fund, in their disaster preparedness and response efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 and to continue to provide basic services to the affected population.
State of Public Health Emergency
is a declaration made by the President of the Republic of the Philippines, through Proclamation No. 922, s. 2020, to capacitate government agencies and LGUs to immediately act to prevent loss of life, utilize appropriate resources to implement urgent and critical measures to contain or prevent the spread of COVID-19, mitigate its effects and impact to the community, and prevent serious disruption of the functioning of the government and the community.
Statement of Allotments, Actual Obligations, Disbursement and Balances (SAAODB)
obligation accounting is modified to simplify procedures in the occurrence and liquidation of obligations and the recording of the budgetary accounts (allotments, and obligations incurred and liquidated)
Strand
A specific dimension of practice under a domain in the Professional Standards.
Strand
More specific dimensions of teacher practice under every domain in the set of professional standards for teachers.
Strategic Management
This strand enables the organization to focus on long-term directions and interface with the internal and external environment and stakeholders.
Strategic Performance Management System (SPMS)
refers to the CSC PMS that gives emphasis to the strategic alignment of the organizational goals with the day-to-day operation of units and individual personnel.
Strengthened Technical-Vocational Education Program (STVEP)
It is a pioneering program of DepEd under the Bureau of Curriculum Development that provides opportunities for utmost development of the individual as a total person equipped with technical-vocational and academic competencies, proper work ethics and desirable values that will make the person economically-stable, responsible, law-abiding citizen, productive, and competitive in the world of work.
Sub-Allotment Release Order (Sub-ARO)
a specific authority issued by DepEd Central Office (CO) to Regional Offices (ROs) which allow them to incur obligations within a specified amount during a specified period
Sub-Allotment Release Order (Sub-ARO)
authority issued by the agency to its operating units to incur obligations
Substitute Appointment
refers to the appointment issued to an appointee when the regular incumbent of the position is temporarily unable to perform the duties of the position.
Summative Assessment
is an assessment that is usually administered toward the end of a learning period to measure the extent to which the learners have mastered the essential learning competencies, the results of which are recorded and are used to report the learner’s achievement.
Summative assessment
Used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, quarter, semester, program, or school year. (Please also refer to DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2015, pp. 2-3 for additional description of summative assessment.)
Summative assessment
may be seen as assessment of learning, which occurs at the end of a particular unit. This form of assessment usually occurs toward the end of a period of learning in order to describe the standard reached by the learner. Often, this takes place in order for appropriate decisions about future learning or job suitability to be made. Judgments derived from summative assessment are usually for the benefit of people other than the learner (UNESCO-TLSF).

Summative assessment measures whether learners have met the content and performance standards. Teachers must use methods to measure student learning that have been deliberately designed to assess how well students have learned and are able to apply their learning in different contexts. The results of summative assessments are recorded and used to report on the learners’ achievement. Primarily, the results of summative assessment are reported to the learners and their parents/guardians. In addition, these are reported to principals/school heads, teachers who will receive the child in the next grade level, and guidance teachers who should help students cope with challenges they experience in school.
Summer class
any structured instructional or formal learning experiences offered by a public or private elementary or secondary school during summer-break with the approval of the Schools Division Superintendent.
Supervisory
refers to the oversight of people and/or output of an organizational unit, which involves planning, programming, delegation of tasks, monitoring of work output, and evaluation of performance, maintaining morale and discipline among employees, and developing cooperation and ensuring a well-coordinated workforce.
Supplemental Appropriations
additional appropriations authorized by law to augment the original appropriations which proved to be insufficient for their intended purpose due to economic, political or social conditions supported by a Certification of Availability of Funds (CAF) from the BTr.
Supplementary Learning Resources (SLRs)
are storybooks, big books, fictional materials, and references for general use or for specific learning areas other than regular textbooks.
Support Funds
shall refer to funds allocated to assist/support the implementation of Adopt-A-School Programs, Local Stakeholders Convergence and Government and Community Partnerships.
Support Services
refers to the necessary services appropriate to the needs of learners with disabilities such as but not limited to sign language interpreting, speech-language therapy, and physical therapy, assessment, occupational and behavioral therapy, and others.
Support Services
refers to the necessary services appropriate to the needs of learners with disabilities such as but not limited to sign language interpreting, speech-language therapy, and physical therapy, assessment, occupational and behavioral therapy, and others.
Support to Operations (STO)
refers to one (1) of the three (3) components of the ALS Program Support Fund which covers administrative, program delivery and implementation expenses, among others.
Supreme Student Government (SSG)
for the purposes of this policy, the SSG shall refer to the highest governing body of students composed of students from Grades 7 to 12 for Integrated Schools or Grades 11 to 12 for Stand-alone Senior High Schools.
Surveillance Audit
An audit conducted by a third-party certifying body (must be the same as the one that conducted the External Certification Audit) to check and verify that DepEd continues to adhere to the QMS and ISO requirements after ISO Certification.
Suspension of Awards
refers to the deferral of giving certain awards and recognition stated in DO No. 36, s. 2016 for SY 2020-2021 as these awards entail demonstrations of in-person and collaborative performance possible only for face-to-face learning set up. Such awards include the following: Classroom Awards (Performance Awards for Kindergarten, Conduct Awards, Recognition for Perfect Attendance); Grade-Level Awards (Leadership Award, Award for Outstanding Performance in Specific Disciplines, Award for Work Immersion, Award for Research or Innovation, Award for Club or Organization Achievement); and Special Recognition.
System assessment
measures the effectiveness of an educational system. It is designed to determine the degree to which the system goals are achieved across regions, curricular areas, and learners. It may also provide evidence and data for monitoring and evaluation.
System of Ranking Positions
refers to the hierarchical arrangement of positions from highest to lowest, which shall be a guide the determination of which position is next-in-rank, taking into consideration the following: a) organizational structure; b) salary grade allocation; c) classification and functional relationship of positions; and d) geographic location.
System of Ranking Positions
refers to the hierarchical arrangement of positions from highest to lowest, which shall be a guide the determination of which position is next-in-rank, taking into consideration the following: a) organizational structure; b) salary grade allocation; c) classification and functional relationship of positions; and d) geographic location.
System performance assessment
refers to how effectively and efficiently the system delivered basic education vis-a-vis the set of indicators and versus its articulated targets on the Philippine Development Plan.
T
TV/Radio-Based Instruction
utilizes SLMs converted to video lessons for Television-Based Instruction and SLMs converted to radio scripts for RadioBased Instruction.
TVL-SHS Implementing Units (IUs)
refer to public senior high schools, which maintain separate books of accounts (DepEd Order No. 55 series 2008). The listed TVL-SHS IUs were taken from the latest listing of the Department of Education.
TVL-SHS Non-Implementing Units (non-IDs)
refer to public TVL senior high schools without separate books of accounts that are under direct supervision of the Division Offices (DepEd Order No. 55 series 2008).
Tahderriyah
is a kindergarten program for Muslim children in private madaris that implements ALIVE and Islamic studies.
Tax Remittance Advice (TRA)
serially-numbered document prescribed by the DBM that should be used by the NGAs in the remittance of withheld taxes on funds coming from DBM
Teacher
refers to a person engaged in classroom teaching, in any level of instruction, on full-time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians, industrial arts or vocational instructors, and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools; but shall not include school nurses, school physicians, school dentists, and other school employees.
Teacher Induction Program (TIP)
is a systematic and comprehensive training scheme for newlyhired teachers as part of professional development toward effective teaching and commitment for the profession.
Teacher Induction Program (TIP) Mentor
is a Department Head, Master or Key Teacher who is assigned to orient, mentor, and supervise a newly-hired teacher.
Teacher Induction Program (TIP) Trainer
is one who undergoes the National Orientation of Training for the mass implementation of TIP.
Teacher Portfolio
Purposeful compilation of documents that display teacher’s achievements, classroom performance, teaching practices, students evaluation, actions that are used as evidences for midyear and year-end assessment.
Teachers
are regular or permanent personnel in schools and learning centers who are “engaged in the classroom teaching of any subject, including practical / vocational arts, at the elementary and secondary levels of instruction” (Republic Act No. 7784).
Teachers
regular or permanent personnel in schools and learning centers “engaged in the classroom teaching of any subject, including practical/vocational arts, at the elementary and secondary levels of instruction including persons performing guidance and counseling, instructional supervision in all private or public education institutions, but shall not include school nurses, school physicians, school dentists, school administrators, and other school administrative support employees” (R.A. No. 7784, 1993, Section 2(a)).
Teachers’ Salary Subsidy (TSS)
A DepEd program where an annual subsidy is provided to qualified teachers in ESC-participating schools. Such teachers are called TSS recipients.
Teachers’ Vacation Service Credits
refers to the leave credits earned for services rendered on activities during summer or Christmas vacation or in the course of the regular school year, as authorized by the proper authority.
Teacher’s Guide
formerly known as the National Kindergarten Curriculum Guide, or the Forty (40)-Week Curriculum is the primary reference of Kindergarten teachers in carrying out the day to day teaching and learning processes. It contains suggested play- and theme-based activities for the different blocks of time per day, within a week and in the span of forty (40) weeks.
Teaching Competencies
Competencies intended for teachers (DepEd Order No. 2, s. 2015, p. 6). They pertain to the knowledge, skills and behavior expected of teachers for them to realize their duties and responsibilities efficiently and effectively.
Teaching Personnel
refers to “all persons engaged in classroom teaching, in any level of instruction, on a full-time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians, industrial or vocational instructors, head teachers, school heads and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools”.
Teaching Position
refers to a position that is directly engaged in teaching or in the delivery of instruction in the elementary and secondary levels (junior high school and senior high school), whether on full-time or part-time basis, in schools and learning centers.
Teaching Practice
A teacher’s manner or habit on the delivery of instruction. This includes everything that a teacher does to achieve learning. It reflects the teachers’ knowledge, skills, values and attitudes as they perform their duties and responsibilities in teaching.
Teaching and learning resources
Teaching aids and other materials that teachers use not only to enhance teaching and learning but also to assist learners to meet the expectations for learning as defined by the curriculum.
Technical Budget Hearing
budget hearings conducted by DBM to rationalize the existence of the department /office, and to validate the expected outputs and cost estimates for the budget year
Technical-Vocational Institutions (TVIs)
These are training institutions or training centers accredited by TESDA that provides technical training for skilled workers and middle-level workers. They also serve as assessment centers for those seeking for National Certifications of their competencies and qualifications.
Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) Track
It is one of the four (4) SHS tracks that offers various specialization courses in four [4] major areas: Agri-Fishery Arts, Industrial Arts, Home Economics and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). TVL students are equipped with technical and vocational skills to make them ready for employment, technopreneurship endeavors and or higher learning.
Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Track
is for SHS learners who intend to pursue careers specializing in vocational learning or technical-vocational livelihood. The Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) track has four strands: 1) Agri-Fishery Arts Strand; 2) Home Economics (HE) Strand; 3) Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Strand; and 4) Industrial Arts Strand. These are aligned with the Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Learning Area in Grades 7 to 10. Each TVL strand offers various specializations that may or may not have a National Certificate (NC) equivalent from the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).
Temporarily enrolled
learners who are not officially enrolled due to deficiencies in submission of documentary requirements.
Temporary Appointment
refers to the appointment issued to an appointee who meets all the requirements of the position except the education but only in the absence of applicants who possess the minimum educational qualification, as certified by the Schools Division Superintendent.
Temporary Learning Space (TLS)
refers to a designated space or structure that is established in transitional sites, permanent relocation sites, or in schools with damaged infrastructure due to a disaster or emergencies, which are intended for the immediate resumption of formal and non-formal education to ensure education continuity of children while awaiting the construction or repair of permanent classrooms.
Temporary Learning Spaces
a designated space or structure that is established in transitional sites, permanent relocation sites, or in schools with damaged infrastructure due to disaster or emergencies, which are intended for the immediate resumption of formal and non-formal education to ensure education continuity of children while awaiting the construction or repair of permanent classrooms.
Termination date
refers to the period when the deduction of certain loan amortization will end, as reflected in the pay slip oi DepEd personnel.
The Phil-IRI Oral Reading Test
is administered in order to: identify the student’s miscues in oral reading; record the number of words that a student reads per minute; and find out how well a student understands the passage read.
The Skills Training and Assessment
It is designed to equip the techvoc teachers with the necessary competencies as required in the qualification standards of the Training Regulations leading to TESDA’s National Certification (NC). The certification process is also a mechanism to ensure that techvoc teachers are capable of teaching/facilitating the learning activities in their respective field of specializations. The training and assessment program should be handled and managed by competent/proficient and qualified trainers/assessors certified by TESDA in the areas of Home Economics, Arts and Trades, Agriculture and Fishery and ICT.
The Skills Training and Assessment
It is designed to equip the techvoc teachers with the necessary competencies as required in the qualification standards of the Training Regulations leading to TESDA’s National Certification (NC). The certification process is also a mechanism to ensure that techvoc teachers are capable of teaching/facilitating the learning activities in their respective field of specializations. The training and assessment program should be handled and managed by competent/proficient and qualified trainers/assessors certified by TESDA in the areas of Home Economics, Arts and Trades, Agriculture and Fishery and ICT.
Third Level Positions
generally, require either Career Service Executive Eligibility (CSEE) or Career Executive Service (CES) Eligibility. These include Undersecretary, Assistant Secretary, Bureau Director, Assistant Bureau Director, Regional Director, Assistant Regional Director, Director of Services/Centers, Schools Division Superintendents, Assistant Schools Division Superintendent, and other officers of equivalent rank.
Third-Party Certifying Body
An external and independent organization, accredited by the Philippine Accreditation Bureau (PAB) of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), which performs an audit to verify the agency’s conformance to ISO 9001 standards.
Tobacco industry interference
refers to the broad array of tactics and strategies
utilized by the tobacco industry to influence or interfere with the setting and implementation of tobacco control policies.
Totally damaged classrooms
damaged academic classrooms that cannot be used.
Trainers Methodology (TM) Level I
The TM Level I consists of competencies a Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) trainer or assessor must achieve, such as plan training sessions, facilitate learning sessions, supervise work-based learning, conduct competency assessment, maintain training facilities and utilize electronic media in facilitating training. A person who has achieved this qualification is competent to be a TVET Trainer/Technical Trainer, Training Facilitator/Coordinator and Competency Assessor. This training program is provided for techvoc teachers who are holders of National Certificates.
Transfer Manifest Inbound
refers to a document which records the transfer of pre-inspected goods from the supplier to the third-party logistics provider. It contains a list of the items and quantity that are hauled or picked up from the supplier’s warehouse, to be stored at the third-party logistics provider’s warehouse, and to be delivered to the recipient units in the field offices and/or units.
Transfer Manifest Outbound
refers to a document which records the delivery of goods by the third-party logistics provider to a recipient unit. This form gives a brief description and quantity of the items delivered and duly received by the RO/SDO Supply Officer or School Property Custodian whose signature appears thereon.
Transferred Out
is the status of a learner who transferred to another school or ALS Program within the SY. The tagging of the learner as a transferee will be the responsibility of the receiving school. The system will automatically update the status of the learner as “Transferred Out” once the originating school tags the learner as “No Longer in School”, the receiving school enrolls the learner, and both schools have finalized their EOSY master lists.
Transferred in
learners aggregated by male and female who entered from one school to another, either government or private from 1 st Friday of school calendar days to March 31.
Transferred out
earners who left school to enter another school as evidenced by a request for permanent record (Form 137) from 1st Friday of school calendar days to March 31.
Transferred to ALS
Learner has transferred to ALS program.
Transferred to International School
Learner transferred to an international school
Transferred to School Abroad
Learner transferred and is continuing his/her schooling abroad
Transition
refers to the act by which an LWD passes from one learning environment or entry point (i.e., home) to another (i.e., formal school) throughout his or her developmental life span.
Transition Allowance
the excess of the present salary over the eighth step of the salary grade allocation of the employee’s position.
Transition Curriculum
is part of the K to 12 basic education curriculum specially designed to develop the LWD’s indispensable life skills regardless of a person’s level of functioning or the degree of severity of his or her disability.
Transition Program
refers to the educational equity program that includes curriculum, instruction, and policies that will support the education of learners with disabilities. It aims to help LWDs become functional despite their disabilities, help make them enjoy their daily lives, and empower them to become more useful and productive citizens.
Transition Program
refers to the educational program in support to the transition of learners with disabilities. This covers the Transition Curriculum and other policies for this purpose.
Transitional Site
refers to structures temporarily constructed by the government and non-government organizations intended for families affected by a disaster or emergency while awaiting transfer to permanent shelters.3 This may also be used interchangeably with a temporary resettlement site.
Transparency
refers to the availability to the public of relevant, reliable and timely information on recruitment, selection, and placement.
Transportation Expenses
the actual fares of the authorized modes of transportation (e.g., land, sea and air) for local travels from the permanent official station to the destination or place of assignment and back.
Trial Balance
listing of general ledger accounts with their corresponding debit and credit balances used to determine equality of debit and credit balances after the recording process
Triangulation Process
refers to the activity conducted by the created technical working group in order to ensure that the submitted work and financial plans are within their office mandate and priorities. The TWG also ensures during the process that the physical, financial, and procurement plans are sychronized and aligned with policies, rules and regulations of the Department and other oversight agencies.
Typically Developing Learners
refers to the learners in the general education classes who are at pace in their developmental domains of learning expected of their respective chronological age.
U
Unified Accounts Code Structure (UACS)
government-wide coding framework, to provide a harmonized budgetary and accounting code classification that will facilitate the efficient and accurate financial reporting of actual revenue collections and expenditures compared with programmed revenues and expenditures, respectively
Unrecorded Deposits
collections of the agency/entity which are directly deposited by the debtor/client to the bank account of the agency/entity but remain unrecorded by the agency/entity as at the period under reconciliation.
V
VP-participating Senior High School (VP-participating SHS)
Non-DepEd SHS that accept QVRs in the SHS VP and are thus subject to these program guidelines. If a non-DepEd SHS accepts QVRs in multiple campuses or in different delivery modes, each campus and delivery mode combination is considered a separate VP-participating SHS.
Verbal communication strategies
Oral or spoken means of transmitting information and meaning.
Violence against children committed in schools
refers to a single act or a series of acts committed by school administrators, academic, and nonacademic personnel against a child, which result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering, or other abuses including threats of such acts, battery, assault, coercion, harassment, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty. It includes, but is not limited to, physical, sexual, psychological violence, and other acts of violence of a physical, sexual, or psychological nature that are prejudicial to the best interest of the child.
Violence against women and their children (VAWC)
refers to any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life, as provided under Republic Act (RA) 9262 or The Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004.
Virtual In-Service Training for Teachers (VINSET)
The Department has embarked on a massive Virtual INSET (In-Service Training) campaign through the DepEd Learning Management System.

The platform was used to deploy training sessions to ensure that education will continue amid the global pandemic.

Covers a wide range of blended learning applications such as DepEd Commons, DepEd Learning Management System, DepEd TV, DepEd Online Courses (ETULAY), and educational application tools to supplement and complement the DepEd distance learning modalities in teaching using ICT resources.

The first Virtual In-Service Training (VINSET) held last 15-19 March 2021 trained 514,659 public school teachers to maximize the potential of ICT tools and to complement these with existing blended learning methodologies. The event marked the first webinar training worldwide that reached a hundred thousand participants.
Virtual conduct of research-related activities and initiatives
Research-related activities and initiatives such as call for proposals, committee evaluation, progress monitoring, dissemination and utilization, and other support activities may be conducted virtually and/or remotely. Face-to-face activities shall only be allowed in consideration of the risk severity of the area with strict observance of the minimum health standards. In addition, online submission of requirements shall be allowed. For those who have no internet access, proponents may use courier services to submit the required documents. The cost for the service delivery fee may be charged to the approved budget of research proposals.
Virtual space
The online environment like the social media where people can interact.
Voucher
refers to a subsidy given by the State to qualified Grade 10 completers to enable them to enroll in a non-DepEd SHS of their choice. The assistance helps to defray the cost of tuition and other published fees charged by a non-DepEd SHS. The subsidy is not given to the learner as cash; DepEd instead pays directly to the non-DepEd SHS where the learner enrolls.
Voucher Applicant (VA)
refers to a Grade 10 completer who needs to apply to qualify for a voucher.
Voucher Program Beneficiaries (VPBs)
QVRs that successfully enroll in a non-DepEd SHS and thus benefit from the subsidy provided by the vouchers.
Voucher Program Beneficiary (VPB)
refers to a QVR who avails of the voucher through successful voucher redemption.
Voucher Redemption
refers to the act of availing of the voucher by enrolling at a non-DepEd SHS in any of the DepEd-approved learning delivery options.
Vulnerable Groups
socially disadvantaged groups that are most susceptible to suffer directly from disasters and health events, including senior citizens, immunocompromised individuals, women, children, persons deprived of liberty (PDL), persons with disabilities (PDL), members of indigenous peoples (IPs), internally displaced persons (IDPs), and indigenous cultural communities (ICCs), among others.
W
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools (WinS)
a program that focuses on the standards for the promotion of a clean and safe school environment and correct hygiene and sanitation practices among learners and that is implemented side by side with the Essential Heath Care Program (EHCP), Deworming, and other related school health projects of DepEd.
Water/Hydrotherapy Service Area
refers to where learners with specific disability would reduce anxiety and stress by relaxing muscles, reducing pain, stimulating circulation, and reducing spasticity which would lead to improving concentration in learning and improve health condition.
Wider school community
Refers to both internal and external stakeholders.
Work Immersion
refers to the subject of the Senior High School Curriculum, which involves hands-on experience or work simulation in which learners can apply their competencies and acquired knowledge relevant to their track.
Work Immersion Partner Institution Supervisor
serves as the counterpart of the Work Immersion Teacher and may also be the representative of the partner institution in forging partnership with DepEd schools. This person shall be identified in the MOA.
Work Immersion Teacher
is the school personnel who is assigned to supervise the learners at the Work Immersion Venue in coordination with the Work Immersion Partner Institution Supervisor.
Work and Financial Plan (WFP)
refers to the overall physical (targeted outputs) and financial (estimated obligations/expenditures) plan consistent with the approved budget for the year, broken down by quarter.
Work and Financial Plan (WFP)
is an operational planning document generated from the uploaded Expenditure Matrix (EM) that outlines the complete course of action (activities) to be undertaken, indicators, major deliverables and milestones, schedule and duration, and the budgetary requirements. The WFP in the PMIS consists of the Physical Plan, Monthly Obligation Program, and Monthly Disbursement Program as prescribed by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM). This document serves as the basis for the execution phase of the budget in processing the obligation and disbursement required for the activity being requested.
Work-from-Home (WFH)
refers to an output-oriented – work arrangement that authorizes the personnel to produce outputs/results and accomplishments outside of the office or school/ community learning center (CLC).
Workplace Immersion Venue
is the place where work immersion is conducted. It shall conform with the law and the rules and regulations on safety, appropriateness for learning, and availability of facilities and equipment, which are issued by the DepEd (DO No. 40 s. 2015), Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and other relevant government agencies. Examples of work immersion venues include offices, factories, shops, and project sites.
Y
Year-End Evaluation
Assessment of Teacher Portfolio conducted during Phase 3 of the RPMS Cycle to rate the performance of Ratees.
Z
Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB)
budgeting approach which involves the review/evaluation of major ongoing programs and projects implemented by different departments/agencies in order to:

– establish the continued relevance of programs/projects given the current developments/directions
– assess whether the program objectives/outcomes are being achieved
– ascertain alternative or more efficient or effective ways of achieving the objectives guide decision-makers on whether or not the resources allotted for the programs/projects should continue at the present level or be increased, reduced, or discontinued

Are you taking the March 2022 National Qualifying Examination for School Heads (NQESH)?

Join this year’s review sessions and let us equip you with the knowledge to hurdle the difficult test that will be your passport towards your dream of becoming a school head to fill the many vacant Principal I items in the country.